The Basic concepts of philosophy, matter and spirit. Idealists and materialists differ in defining their value, but agree about the objective existence of matter. It represents the physical Foundation of the world. The philosophers say that the attributes of matter – movement, space and time. They constitute its essence and characteristics.
Philosophical definition of matter says that it is an objective reality, everything that exists regardless of human consciousness. Substance, attributes, forms of existence which are considered in article, is defined as the antithesis of spirit. She embodies all of the inanimate unlike live the life of the soul. In philosophy, matter is understood as an entity knowable by the senses, but it maintains its characteristics regardless of awareness of it. Thus, matter is objective.
The Ontology conceptualize the nature and role of matter in existence. The answer to the question about the importance of the matter led to the emergence of two global directions in philosophy: idealism and materialism. In the first case it is believed that consciousness is primary and matter secondary. In the second matter regarded as the first principle of being. Matter exists in infinite variety, has many properties and peculiarities, its own structure and functions. But in a global sense, there are universal attributes of matter. However, before the crystallization of ideas about the properties of matter, philosophy has come a long way thinking about the nature of this phenomenon.
Philosophy was formed as the scope of the comprehension of objects such as existence, matter. The attributes of the objective world became the subject of reflection thinkers since ancient times. The founder of the first system of views on the nature and role of matter was the ancient Greek philosopher Thales. He stated that a fundamental principle of existence is water as a material reality. She possessed in the moving, changing world the property of the constancy of its characteristics. She could change shape, but its essence remained the same. Water is knowable through the senses, and its transformation apprehended by the mind. So Thales has made the first observations about the objective character of matter and its versatility.
Later, Heraclitus and Parmenides enhance understanding about the objective characteristics of existence, raise many new questions. The views of Democritus, his atomic theory became a source of reflection on the movement as the main attribute of life. The problem of the opposition of the ideal and material worlds was through the Plato. Any thing in the world is the result of the fusion of idea and matter. And then there is an important ontological question: what is matter? This issue much thought was devoted by Aristotle. He wrote that matter – is sensually perceivable substance, the substratum of each thing.
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In the next few centuries, discussion on the matter was only in the context of the confrontation between the materialistic and idealistic views. And science once again raised the thinking about the definition of matter. Under it you begin to understand the objective reality that exists according to its own laws, independent of human perception. Philosophers, based on scientific discoveries, you begin to comprehend the properties and forms of the objective world. They justify the following properties of matter as length, inertia, mass, indivisible, impenetrable. Later discoveries in physics introduced in the philosophical turnover concepts such as field, electrons, etc. the Attributes of matter, in philosophy, become an important area of reflection. Open physicists of our time enrich and extend these ideas, in the ontology there are new theories about the properties and structure of matter. Today is gaining relevance the problem of correlation of concepts "matter" and "energy".
Describing matter, philosophers are by describing its properties. This allows you to understand the specifics of the phenomenon. The main property of matter - the objectivity of its existence. It does not change its shape and properties in the perception of man and without him, she obeys physical laws of existence. The second property specifying the content of the concept of “matter”, is consistency. Matter is characterized by orderliness and structural certainty. Another universal property of matter – activity. It is subject to change and development, has dynamics. In addition, matter peculiar ability to self-organization and reflection. An important property of it is called informative. It is able to store and transmit information about their origins, development, structure.
The Universal properties of matter philosophers believe its indestructibility and nestorivsky. It is impossible to add or subtract known to man ways, the world is self-sufficient. Matter have no beginning and no end, it was never created, never began and will never end. An important property of matter is its determinism, all the objects and things in the world depend on the structural relations within it. Everything in the material world is subordinated to objective laws, everything has its cause and effect. Originality of matter – another significant property. In the world there cannot be two identical items, each item has a unique composition. In addition to theseproperties of matter are allocated to specific attributes that are inherent regardless of the form of existence. Attribute properties of matter and their study is an important area of modern philosophical knowledge.
The Subject of ontology and epistemology is a matter. The attributes and properties of the permanent, universal, regardless of the form of existence. The ancient Greeks noticed that the matter peculiar to the movement. While I do not mean only physical movement, but the variability of its flow from one form to another.
Matter is eternal in time, as it has no source start and termination points. In addition, it is infinite in its spatial aspect. Reflections of philosophers about the universal characteristics of matter led them to the identification of its basic attributes. Apart is its structure, which is also a basic property. The basic attributes of matter – movement, time and space, they are the subject of deep philosophical analysis and reflection.
Philosophers put the most important questions: what is matter, whether it is endless where it originates? From the search for answers was born ontology, which explained the existence of the special characteristics of matter. She also formulated the theoretical background on the basis of which in modern times has been called the attributes of matter. But the first answer to the question of its structure was given in the framework of ancient Greek philosophy. Atomistic theory of Democritus claimed that matter consists of tiny particles – atoms that are not visible to the human eye and which exist in free space. The atoms unchanged, but the things in which they are grouped is changeable and movable.
With the advent of science ideas about the structure of matter have changed, emerged the concept of living and nonliving matter, each of which has its own structure. The inanimate world consists of levels such as particles, atoms, chemical elements, molecules, planets, systems of planets, stars, galaxies, systems of galaxies. Living nature consists of cells, acids and proteins, multicellular creatures, populations, biocoenosis and biosphere. Also philosophers have introduced the concept of social matter, the structure of which include gender, family, ethnicity, humanity.
The Development of science has led to the emergence of another point of view on the matter, it was isolated microcosm, macrocosm and megaworld. The scale of these levels is defined through the main attributes of matter: space and time.
Motion, time – the attributes of matter which were revealed in ancient times. Even then people noticed that in the world nothing is permanent – everything changes, flows from one form to another. Understanding this phenomenon has led to the emergence of two initial ideas about its essence. In a narrow sense, the movement is spatial movement of objects from one point to another, while there was no change of the object. In this sense, the movement – it is the antithesis of peace. In the broadest sense the movement – any change in the object, dynamics of its shapes and properties. And this is a natural condition of matter. Like all the attributes of matter, motion is inherent to it initially, genetically. It is characteristic of any material form. And it is impossible without matter, is not pure movement. This is his attribute character. Matter inherent in the development, which is the movement, she constantly strives to complexity, moving from lowest to highest. It should also be noted that the movement objectively, changes in it can make only a practice.
Motion as an attribute of matter possesses a number of properties, they are often ambivalent. First and foremost it is characterized by absoluteness and relativity. The absolute is that the movement is inherent in any form of matter, nothing in the world is at rest. Thus any particular movement always strives for peace, it is of course, this is his relative. Stopping individual movement moves into a new form, and it is the absolute law. Also, the movement is both intermittent and continuous. Ego the discontinuity is linked to the ability of matter to olenitsa on separate forms, such as planets, galaxies, etc. and the continuity lies in the ability to self-organize into a coherent system.
The Main attribute of matter is motion, which can take many different forms. Their classification suggested by F. Engels, who discovered 5 main types:
- mechanical; the simplest form – moving objects;
- physical, physics-based, it includes light, heat, magnetism, etc.;
- chemical interaction of molecules and atoms.
biological & ndash; self-regulation, reproduction and development in ecological systems and biocenoses;
- social – all kinds of conscious and transformative activities of people.
All forms of movement develop into a complex hierarchical system: from simple to complex. These systems obey the same laws:
between forms of motion, there are genetic links, each simple shape serves as the basis for the development of morecomplex and comprised of all its components;
- each higher form has its own unique differences, this leads to a qualitative development of matter.
This is not to explain the higher forms of motion only by the action of physical-chemical laws. The movement covers all the unity of the material world, including the consciousness of the people.
Space and time as attributes of matter began to comprehend people long before the advent of philosophy. More primitive people by mastering the world around us, aware of the existence of these phenomena. Moreover, they perceive as an indivisible whole, measuring the space in hours and time as some spatial segments.
Mythological understanding of space and time much different from today. Time seemed as a kind of cyclic substance, which is not directed from the past to the future, as we are accustomed to, and simultaneously co-exist as separate worlds: there is the world of the ancestors, the world of the gods and the world of today's existence. The concept of “tomorrow” appears only at higher stages of development. And to travel between temporary layers is possible, as in space. In many mythological systems in such a spatial link was a tree. Thus, in “the tale of Igor's campaign" tells of how the elder “spread the idea of the tree", i.e., travels through the tree, connecting the times.
The concepts of space also differed significantly. It seemed centered and end. So, was the opinion that there is some center of the earth, this is usually a kind of Holy place, is the edge of the earth, after which comes the unknown, budmaterialy chaos. In addition, the space had estimated the marking, i.e. it was not homogeneous: there were bad and good places. Man deified the entire material world, including space and time.
With the advent of scientific discoveries understanding of these phenomena are changing. Comes the realization that the attributes of matter objective, measurable and obey the laws of physics.
Space as an attribute of matter has a counterpart in the material world and the abstraction of the first level. It has the following properties:
- the length, i.e. the existence and communication of any elements; it is defined as the unity of discontinuity and continuity, and consists of individual segments that in sum add up to infinity;
- three-dimensional - according to the physical parameters of the space has length, width and height; according to the theory of Einstein, there is a fourth axis – time, but it is applicable only in the framework of physics, in three-dimensional manifest the infinity and inexhaustibility of space;
- separability of the space can be divided into various segments: meters, kilometers, parsecs;
- homogeneity means that space does not exist any allocated points;
- izotopnoi, i.e., the parity of any of the selected areas;
- infinite space has no beginning or end.
As the attribute of matter is defined as a special form of processes in the objective world and has special characteristics. It has no analogue in the material world and the abstraction of the second level. Time is irreversible, it is always directed from past to future through present, and other movement impossible. It is characterized by duration and sequence. Processes occur in sequence, the stages can't change its priority. Time is continuous and discrete at the same time. It is a stream without beginning or end, however, it can be divided into segments: hours, years, centuries. An important property of time is its endlessness, or inexhaustibility.
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