Solid state relays with their hands: the scheme


2018-03-17 13:35:26




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To Make solid state relays with his own hands the power of even the novice hobbyist. Nothing complicated in the construction of this device, but we have to deal with the circuitry, the features of the application and the connection is still needed. Solid state relay – element, made on the basis of semiconductors. In its design there are power switches on the triac, thyristors, or transistors. These relays, operating silently, are good replacement for contactors and starters. With their help, devices connect more securely and safely.

Simple relay diagram

In power electronics is often necessary to use a single or 3-phase solid state relays. Own hands to make this device can be in one of the schemes presented in the paper.

appearance solid state relays

The Advantage of solid state relays over mechanical contactors obvious – they have a resource much higher. And this is due to the fact that in them there is no mechanical component, and they are the most vulnerable.

For the manufacture of solid state relays you can use a chain consisting of a control circuit and triac. Galvanic isolation exercises triac optocoupler. In the scheme used the following elements:

  1. Optocoupler type МОС3083.
  2. Triac brand ВТ139-800 16A insulated anode.
  3. Limiting resistor that reduces the current passing through the led.
  4. Led for indicating operation of the device.
  5. To the control electrode of the triac connected to the resistor 160 Ohms.

Now let's consider in more detail the process of manufacturing the device.


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Production process

It is Recommended to enclose all the circuit elements in a metal casing and that the cooling was much better. For reliability you need to fill the box with a glue gun. The main thing at work – it is right to pick up a metal substrate to provide better heat dissipation. For the manufacture of formwork used, which is a solid-state relay DC. With your hands to make it from any material.

Ideal plastic box or pipe section. It all depends on the size of the product. The metal substrate should be placed in the formwork. Carefully pour glue all of the circuit elements, the holes in the chassis to provide a good insulation. Please note that triac insights usually are defined ambiguously, so they need to pre-check. To check the opening of the triac it is necessary to use a megger. As soon as the triac opens, the resistance will change from several tens mega ohms to 1-2.

Features of the device solid state relays

Regardless of what manufacturer of solid state relays, the circuitry had a constant – in rare cases it is possible to find minor differences. At the entrance is usually installed resistor connects it in series with the optical device. Sometimes the resistance is made by complex structures, which includes protection from reverse polarity and current regulator. It is necessary to allocate such properties of solid state relays

  1. Using the optical isolation provided by the isolation of various circuits of the electronic device.
  2. Using the switching circuit cannot flow to the load voltage.
  3. Using the trigger circuit by input signal and it is switching out.

Industrial design Siemens V23103-S2232-B302

Solid-state Circuit shown in figure:

Diagram solid state relay Siemens production

Under this scheme, his hands solid state relay can be quite fast to make, difficulties in this case will not arise. Main – to find the necessary components or counterparts. Protection can be located inside the housing of the relay, and separately. Now we need to consider an additional device that must be used in conjunction with a relay.

Protective circuit

As you can see, the difficulties in the manufacture of no. If in doubt about your abilities, then it is better to buy the industrial design of the device. You can highlight the key features of the improvised relay:

  1. Control voltage – 3..30 V, DC current.
  2. The output is allowed to connect the voltage sources 115..V. 280
  3. Power output 400 watts.
  4. Minimum current at which the device operates, is about 50 mA.

If the device is used for switching low currents (up to 2 A), then no need to install the radiator. But if the currents are high, will occur strong heating elements. So about cooling to take care of – install additional radiator and the cooler (if there is a possibility to arrange meals for him).

Troubleshooting of relay

Note that if the control of the induction motors need to increase about 10 times the supply current. When you start the engine “pull” from the network current, which is several times higher than the working value. It is for this reason you need to use power elements, with considerable reserves current.

Specifics of operation and switching circuits relay

When making his hands solid state relays FET is important to consider the parameters of the schema in which it will be used. But let us to understand the peculiarities of work with solid elements, consider a conventional electromagnetic relay. Them when the coil is energized, generates a magnetic field. With the help of the pull contacts.

Optic isolated solid state relay with their hands

In this case, the circuit either opens or closes. There is one drawback with this mechanism – have to design a lot of moving parts. They have a solid no, and this is a major advantage. You can also select the following features:

  1. Enabling and disabling workload occurs only in the case when the voltage passes through zero.
  2. When working no noise electric type.
  3. A large Enough range of voltages at which the device operates.
  4. Between the control circuits and load high-quality insulation.
  5. High mechanical strength of the products.

And even when the work has not been issued a single sound-easy to open and close transition of the semiconductor.

Example of connecting solid state relays

You know how to make solid state relays with their hands. Analogues of this device are found on sale quite often. Can be used as a Amateur circuit and industrial – depends on what features you need to get from the device. With the help of this device ensures that the contact voltage and low voltage circuits.

Most of the industrial devices and homemade products has a similar structure. The differences are insignificant, work is not affected in any way. You can easily verify this. The figure shows simple scheme of the relay:

connection Diagram of devices to solid state relays

The Structure of the device:

  1. Optical isolation circuits.
  2. Trigger circuit (can be multiple).
  3. Protective devices and switches.
  4. Inputs.

Sign in – a primary circuit in which is set constant resistance. The input function is to receive signals and transfer commands to the device that produces the switching of the load.

Interchange optical type

Solid state relays in the lighting control system

Optical isolation – is a device which provides isolation of the inputs and outputs. When the processing of the signal received at the input, it is necessary to use a trigger chain. It is a separate component, but sometimes it is included in the design of the optical junction. Circuit switching is used when you need to apply voltage to the load.


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Alin Trodden - author of the article, editor
"Hi, I'm Alin Trodden. I write texts, read books, and look for impressions. And I'm not bad at telling you about it. I am always happy to participate in interesting projects."

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