Mine anti-tank: specifications. The types and names of anti-tank mines

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2020-05-22 22:00:20

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Mine is simple robots designed to destroy offensive capability of the enemy. The device may be different, but the essence is the same. Without human intervention or remote their actuation they blow affecting factors, the main and most common of which are shock wave and the flow of submunitions (or jet stream). What is different from anti-personnel mine anti-tank? This will be the story.

mine antitank

History mine arms

This kind of engineering weapons have long been known. The word before mine meant not set the charge with a fuse, and a tunnel under a fortification, breaks with intent to impair its defensive properties. This hole was given the opportunity to penetrate beyond the walls, and more large-scale production of the soil contributed to the destruction of the towers and other structures that impede the attack. Then, with the development of military technology, these underground tunnels are increasingly began to supply the powder charge to ensure that the process of destruction of the bastions was more intense. In line with the design for the improved charges and detonators to them. Achievements in the field of electronics has simplified the task of remote detonation. During the Crimean war was the first widely used naval mines. Civil war northerners and southerners, the result of which was the unification of the United States (1861-1865), began the mass use of minefields during defensive operations. Anti-personnel mines in the form of samples, similar to the recent one was tested during the First world war. Then they were treated as a forced measure, applicable only in those cases when it was necessary to create a barrier that impedes the onset of a superior enemy.

Mines are different needs

Anti-personnel mines have caused damage not only to the soldiers but also the horses, which constituted the main draft power armies in the early twentieth century. Appeared motor vehicles, including armored also suffer from buried charges, but special construction, designed to destroy then tanks, vulnerable, not yet invented. The situation changed in the thirties, when strategists, thinking prospectively, it became clear that a future war will become mobile, and the dominant role it will play air force and armored forces. About aviation is a special subject, as shown by the history of modernity, there are against it, triggered automatically… But more on that later. And while there is a new view of the engineering of weapons - anti-tank mine. With all the fundamental similarity with its anti-personnel “sister” it is significantly different from it. The task which was undertaken by the designers, projecting the charge with a fuse, was different.

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What should be the anti-personnel mine

Device created to efficiently defeat manpower, should meet a number of requirements tactical. The explosion should create a large number of fragments, flying with sufficient speed to cause maximum damage. While mine should be easy, otherwise the engineers will be hard for her to carry and install. An example is the so-called “Petals”. Mines PFM-1 and PFM-1S copied from an American model called "dragon Tooth" (Dragontooth) - BLU-43. They have a very modest size, but cause great harm to the manpower, carrying out two problems at once. First “Petals”, as a rule, do not cause fatal injury, but only to maim enemy soldiers, which creates an additional burden on the economy of a hostile power. Second, they can self-destruct (in modification “C”), which is very important in the preparation of the offensive.

anti-personnel mines

T-35 and T-42 T-34

Anti-tank Mine, as is evident from its name, is used to destroy armored vehicles. The challenges posed by the engineers, installing it is at least in damage of the chassis tank. Previously it was thought that this is enough to delay the enemy's offensive. For example, the German anti-tank mine, T-35, used by the Wehrmacht during the Second world war against forces of the red Army and the allies, had talovy charge with a mass just over 5 kg. the same performance was about and the T-42, both samples had a metal body, which facilitated their detection of electric, magnetic mine detectors. The bomb squad was harder to find wood, which were made in the handicraft way at the end of the war, but also the charge of them were usually not very powerful. Worked almost every anti-tank mine of the time when hitting on her tracks, the fuses were contact.

After the war

The War was over, and the tanks left. And they consisted on arms of the countries that recently former allies, now become potential enemies. The experience gained in the battles that led to the improvement of anti-tank weapons, including min. besides, the engineers and scientists did not sit idly by. The accumulated combat experience have identified the most vulnerable parts of armored vehicles, it was supposed to strike new improved models. To complicate detection, the body beganmade of plastic, but this led to another problem. If you lose the maps of the mine fields, the work of engineers was considerably impeded. But expanded the variety of fuses and methods of fire effects on armored vehicles.

German anti-tank mine

HM-62

The Most simple is considered a Soviet antitank mine TM-62M. Its design follows the General idea of the charges of the previous decades. The body is made of metal, the fuse contact and can withstand loads up to 150 kg, which prevents its accidental activation. It can be installed by using motorized equipment (e.g., tracked mine layer or GMZ helicopter systems), which increases the speed of mining areas. The weight of the charge – 7 kg, total weight – 10 lbs. At its core, is a land mine, the main action - shock air. After hitting a TM-62M tank damaged rollers, partially destroyed the building, the crew receives a strong concussion, and if the hatches are closed, dies. The main advantages of this mine – simplicity, high capacity, manufacturability, low cost and reliability. At its base, a whole lot of ammunition, characterized by weight and shape.

anti-tank mine TM 62M

The Complication of the task

The Most vulnerable part of any tank is its belly. The armor is thinner and on the sides and in the center of the engine compartment, but to successfully defeat any armored vehicles, it is sufficient to explode the charge under it. For all its merits, mine TM-62M is triggered not under the bottom, and when hitting on her caterpillars, and a large part of the air shock wave falls away from the side of the body, which reduces the likelihood of detonation of ammunition. Moreover, in this case an important role plays the stealth factor. The saboteur can set the charge in the path of enemy vehicles, but its weight should be relatively small. Anti-tank mine TM-72 is more complex. It is by its nature cumulative. This means that when you activate it, a powerful directed jet of hot gas able to penetrate the thick armor. But that's not all, the fuse mines provides a delay that ensures that the undermining of the middle part of a moving tank, just where are the most important and vulnerable nodes – the ammunition and the transmission. The device responds to the magnetic field changes, which explains some of his "moodiness" and the likelihood of inadvertent operation. It is the lack of such ammunition. In addition, the TM-72 is just sufficient to neutralize trawling. Of course, if the enemy has information about the dangers of mining.

mines of the Russian Federation

Mechanical option

Roughly the same effect and mine is anti-TMK-2, which is considered more reliable. Difference is the fuse is a mechanical lever principle. Pin the sensor end protrudes from the ground, armed Mina becomes after its deviation from the horizontal position, and after a short period of time (from a third to a half of a second, that's enough to tank moved half a length), the charge explodes, forming a cumulative jet. BB weight is 6 kg. the destruction of the combat machines are guaranteed, but despite large compared to TM-72 reliability, one drawback remains: to disarm these weapons are relatively simple. Discovery for experienced minesweeper protruding from the ground pins is also a big problem is not.

anti-tank mine TM 62M

On the sides

Not only the track and the bottom becomes the target for antitank mines appear to be Fairly successful design of TM-73, which is a set of the usual grenade launcher “Fly”, the means of attachment on the ground and the fuse break off the action. In other words, the Bazooka is shooting when the enemy vehicle violates the integrity of the stretch marks. More interesting is designed mine TM-83. It is set on the ground, the quality of the bed used her case. After reduction of the charge in firing position and begins to work the seismic sensor responsive to the vibrations of the earth. If it is fixed, turn on the infrared pointer. The cumulative core armor thickness in the decimeter from a distance up to 50 meters. If heat signature is not detected, Mina comes to its original state and waits for the next target.

TM 72

And even defense

Helicopters and attack aircraft often called flying tanks. It is quite true, because the aircraft can now have heavy armor, artillery weapons, “borrowed” from ground vehicles, not to mention the missiles. Mines of the Russian Federation and other countries designed to combat low - flying objects as planes and helicopters. An example is the high-tech device PVM, was developed in the 1990-ies and is designed to engage flying objects shaped core. The guidance system operates through two channels (acoustic and infrared). “Petals” mines in the firing position are arranged, forming the basis of the sensor per kilometer defines the sound of a flying target, then the heat sensor gives her ammunition. Explosive enclosed in a spherical shell, fired at a speed of 3 km/s, and penetrates armor with thickness of 12 mm. the range is not below one hundred meters.Installed anti-helicopter mine can manual and aviation assets. Attack the enemy "flying tank" is repulsed.

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