The life cycle of software: concept, standards, processes

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2018-03-27 05:50:28

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Software Development is impossible without the understanding of the so-called the software life cycle. The ordinary user is, can be, and don't need to know, but the basic standards are desirable to learn (we will explain why this is necessary).

The Lifecycle of software: what is it in the formal sense?

The lifecycle of any software product is understood the time of its existence, starting with the development phase and until the complete rejection of the use in the chosen field of application up to the full withdrawal of the application from use.

life cycle software

In simple terms, the information system in the form of programs, databases, or even “operating” are required only if the age of the data and capabilities provided by them.

It is believed that the lifecycle definition in no way does not apply to the test applications, for example, beta versions, which are the most unstable in operation. The very same life cycle depends on many factors, among which a major role is played by the environment in which the program will be used. However, you can highlight and General terms used in the definition of the life cycle.

Entry requirements

As commonly believed, any software product is used several conditions regarding its development and application, namely:

  • Statement of the problem;
  • Analysis of mutual claims of the future ACCORDING to the system;
  • Design;
  • Programming;
  • Coding and compilation;
  • Test;
  • Debug;
  • Implementation and maintenance of the software product.

The Development consists of all the above stages and can't do without at least one of them. But to control these processes have special standards.

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Standards life cycle processes software

Among the systems that determine the conditions and requirements to such processes may be described only three:

  • GOST 34.601-90;
  • ISO/IEC 12207:2008;
  • Oracle CDM.

life-cycle

For the second international standard there is a Russian equivalent. GOST R ISO/IEC 12207-2010 responsible for system and software engineering. But the life cycle of the software described in both rules is identical in essence. The reason is simple enough.

Types of software and updates

Modern information systems are such that they set the conventional concepts of the application area.

For Example, there are system programs and utilities, multimedia, device drivers, office applications, etc. For any type of software, you can define the lifecycle phases of existence.

Its extension is the most frequently used means of updates (both for operating systems and platforms, and application software). I probably don't need to explain that any user of the computer system based on Windows had been updating the system itself, or components like Microsoft .NET Framework or Java virtual machine.

Design stage

Now a few words about the stages of development. The life cycle initially includes project planning, system analysis and target requirements, preliminary or detailed design, coding and testing, the applicability of programs in specialized systems, etc.

The life cycle Model of software assume that initially the goal is to create software should be limited to the development of universal applications, or software products that use a certain runtime environment.

Development

System development represent programming languages. Software design the first stage can be reduced to this.

development

Whether it's C+/C++, Java, Delphi or Pascal the same outdated – not so important. The question is whether the developed application will be able to integrate into the operating system and work without crashing.

In this sense, 1 the life cycle of the software is its testing of the initial installation of the product before its complete removal due to the mismatch of the requirements of the system, failure or inability to perform the initially assigned tasks.

Later stages

Further support for defining the life cycle of the software is to produce the encoding and receiving of the application source code.

information systems

In the case of free (open) distribution is used the so-called certificate-based license that provides the ability to change the software product at the request of a third-party user familiar with the programming language with which the application was created.

If we are talking about closed code, you can use tools like Disassembler. But in this case it is possible to achieve only decoding of the executable. EXE file, and certainly not dynamic linked DLLs.

But that's the theory. In practice, the stages of the life cycle include in your list a lot more items.Even the most simple situation is simulated from a consideration of the standards and the formulation of observations (high-level architecture requirements, the compliance of the executable code, means and methods of verification). This is the process of the life cycle of the software. But it is important to understand some principles of management of such programs and systems.

Fundamentals of management

Lifecycle Management software is based on split programs into components that gives a fairly wide range of tools to create them.

There is a flip side to the coin. The choice of modules is limited to the original developer platform, on the basis of which is programming. Of course, if you take into account the unification and typification of the applied development tools (especially reusable modules), there are no questions.

But the lifecycle of software necessarily contain establish protocols for data processing, subroutines, and standard libraries and more.

Modules Used

And no process in the life cycle of the software is not complete without the use of very specific components. Among them, the priority are the following:

  • The main (head) the module responsible for the launch of the software product;
  • The control module is responsible for invoking the join components or dynamic libraries;
  • Functional and service processing and added utility.

life cycle model software

Executable file, typically for Windows-based systems presented in the form of “ekzeshnika”. Control components have the extension of configurators (config.sys with respect to operating systems), additional plug-in libraries have the DLL extension. Means of control and processing functions and settings of some applications can look in the XML files.

They, by the way, for most of the currently known media programs are a means of maintaining basic configuration parameters. The use of this type of course is rather limited, but understanding the General principles of work with the same media players won't hurt. And here's why.

In fact, they life cycle software founded only at the level of the period of upgrade the player, or install codecs and decoders. And audio and video transcoders are the essential attributes of any audio or video system.

Example based on the program FL Studio

Initially, virtual Studio sequencer FL Studio was called Fruity Loops. Lifecycle's primary modification has expired, but the application is somewhat transformed and acquired its present appearance.

1 the life cycle of the software

If we talk about the stages of the life cycle, first on the stage were asked several mandatory conditions:

  • Creating a drum module for the type of rhythm machines like Yamaha RX, but with the use of one-shot samples or sequences in the WAV format recorded at the studios in person;
  • Integration into Windows operating systems;
  • Export the project to WAV, MP3 and OGG formats;
  • The compatibility of the projects with additional app Fruity Tracks.

Under development has been applied means of programming languages “si”. But the platform looked quite primitive and did not give the end user the required quality of sound.

In this regard, at the stage of testing and debugging the developers had to go the way of the German Corporation Steinberg and apply the requirements for core audio driver support Full Duplex mode. The quality of the sound was higher and allowed to change the tempo, pitch and impose additional FX effects in real time.

standards for life cycle processes software

The Completion of the life cycle of this is considered to be the release of the first official version of FL Studio, which, unlike their ancestors, had already interface a full-fledged sequencer with the ability to edit settings on a virtual 64-channel mixing console with unlimited add audio tracks and MIDI tracks.

The program Promotion did not stop. At the stage of project management was introduced to support the connectivity plugins in VST format (first, second and third versions), at the time, was developed by company Steinberg. Roughly speaking, any virtual synth support VST-host can connect to the program.

design software

It is not Surprising that soon any composer could use analogs “iron” models, such as complete sets of sounds once popular Korg M1. Further-more. The use of plugins like Addictive Drums or Kontakt universal plug-in allowed to reproduce the sounds of real instruments recorded with all shades of articulation in professional studios.

The developers have tried to achieve maximum quality, creating support for the ASIO4ALL drivers, which was a head above the Full Duplex mode. Accordingly, increased bitrate. To date, the quality of the exported audio file can be up to 320 kbps at a sampling rate of 192 kHz. Andit is a professional sound.

As for the initial versions, its life cycle can be called fully complete, but this statement is relative, because the application only changed its name and gained new opportunities.

Prospects of development

What are the stages of the life cycle of the software is clear. But the development of such technologies should be discussed separately.

Needless to say that any software developer not interested in creating fleeting product that hardly hold on the market for several years. In the future, all look long-term use it. This can be achieved in different ways. But, as a rule, almost all of them are reduced to release updates or new versions of software.

Even in the case of Windows OS such trends can be seen with the naked eye. It is unlikely that today there is at least one user using the system such as modifications 3.1, 95, 98 or Millennium. Their life cycle is over after the release of version XP. But the server version based on the NT technology is still relevant. Even Windows 2000 today is not only highly relevant, but for some installation settings or security even superior to the latest developments. The same applies to system NT 4.0, as well as specialized modifications to Windows Server 2012.

lifecycle stage

But in relation to these systems still claimed to support at the highest level. But acclaimed at the time Vista appears to be having a sunset cycle. Not only that it was unfinished, and the errors in it and holes in its security system was so much that we can only guess about how it was possible to market the software products is untenable.

But if you say that the development of any type (control or application) is not in place, can only state the facts. After all, today it concerns not only computer systems, but also mobile devices, where the applied technology is often ahead of the computer sector. The emergence of processor chips, based on eight cores – than not the best example? But still not every laptop can boast of having such an “iron”.

Some additional questions

As for the understanding of the life cycle of the software say that it ended at some specific point in time, can be very arbitrary, because the software products still have support from the developers who created them. Rather, the end refers to legacy applications that do not meet the requirements of modern systems and may not work in their environment.

But even with technological progress, many of them in the near future may prove to be untenable. And then it will have to make a decision either to issue updates, or a complete revision of the whole concept initially inherent in a software product. Here – and a new cycle involving changing the initial conditions, development environment, testing and possible long-term use in a particular area.

But in computer technology today, preference is given to the development of automated control systems (management information system) that apply in the workplace. Even operating systems, in comparison with the specialized programs, you lose.

The same environment based on Visual Basic's are much more popular than Windows. And application software under UNIX-systems not talking at all. What to say, if almost all communication networks to the United States working exclusively on them. By the way, systems like Linux and Android, too it was originally created on this platform. Therefore, most likely, UNIX prospects much more than the other products combined.

Instead of result

It Remains to add that in this case there are only General principles and the stages of the life cycle of the software. In fact, even the initial tasks may vary significantly. Accordingly, differences can be observed in the other stages.

But the basic technology of software development with its further maintenance should be clear. Otherwise, you should consider the specifics to be created, and the environment in which it is supposed to work, and the programs provided to the end user or manufacturing, and more.

Besides, sometimes life cycles may depend on the relevance of the development tools. If, say, a programming language becomes obsolete, nobody will write programs based on it, and even more – to implement them in automated control systems in manufacturing. There is already to the fore, even not programmers, and marketers who must respond promptly to changes in the computer market. And such specialists in the world there are not so many. Highly qualified personnel, able to keep their finger on the pulse of the market, becoming the most popular. And they are often so-called “gray cardinals”, on which depends the success or defeat of a particular software product in the field of IT.

Even if they do not always understand the essence of programming, but clearly able to determine the life cycle model software and the length of time of their application, based on the global trendsin this area. Effective management often yields better results. Yes, at least PR-technologies, advertising, etc. some application to the user and not necessary, but provided that it is active from posting user will install it. This is, so to say, subconscious level (the same effect of 25-th frame, when the information is in the consciousness of the user, irrespective of him).

Of Course, such technologies in the world are banned, but many of us are not even aware that they can still be used to influence the subconscious in a certain way. That only is the “brainwashing” news channels or Internet sites, not to mention the use of more powerful tools, like exposure to infrasound (this was applied in one Opera), so that people can feel intimidated or inadequate emotion.

Returning to the software, I should add that some of your startup programs, use the beep, attracting the attention of the user. And, studies show that such applications are more viable in comparison with other programs. Of course, increases the life cycle ON, no matter what function assigned to it initially. And this, unfortunately, is used by many developers, which raises doubts about the legality of such practices.

But not for us to judge. Perhaps in the near future tools will be developed, defining such threats. It's just a theory, but, according to some analysts and experts to practical application. If you are already making replicas of the neural networks of the human brain, then what?

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