Pierre de Fermat-one of the greatest scientists in the history of France. His achievements include the creation of such works as theory of probability and numbers, he is the author of outstanding theorems, and discoverer of a number of mathematical properties. From a very young age his parents paid great attention to the education of the son, and, most likely, it influenced the formation of a Grand mind. Always calm and active, curious and simply looking for and finding – Pierre de Fermat. A short biography will help the reader to see for themselves all the most interesting about this colossal magnitude of the individual mathematician.

Pierre was born in France. It is one of the pioneers and founders of the theory of numbers, and analytical geometry.

For a Long time said that Pierre Fermat was born in 1595 in Toulouse, but by the mid-nineteenth century in the city of beaumont in the archives was discovered record, in which it was said that in the summer of 1601 the adviser to the city of Dominique Fermat and his wife were born a son Pierre. It is known that Dominic was a very respected man in the city. He was a merchant of leather. Early years Pierre spent with my parents, and when it came time to get an education, he went to Toulouse – the closest city with universities. Carefully studied the right on the bench of the University gave Pierre the opportunity to work with a lawyer, but the young man decided to join the service of the state. In 1631, Pierre was credited an adviser at the Parliament of Toulouse. At this time the Farm was already married to the daughter of a Counsellor of Parliament, in which he worked. His life was very quiet and peaceful. But thanks to him, today people learning mathematics, can learn a lot of interesting information that is truly priceless. Even in the school program actively focuses on the theme of “Pierre de Fermat and his open”.

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In his youth, the future mathematician was known as the finest connoisseur of history (especially of antiquity), for his assistance sought in the publication of the classics of Greece. He left comments to the papers Senesova, Atheneum, Polonus, Frontina, Theon of Smyrna, has made changes to the texts of Sextus Empiricus. Many believe that he easily could have left his mark as an outstanding Greek scholar.

However, due to the fact that he chose a different path, saw the light of his grandiose by its size study. And so most people knows what Pierre de Fermat-mathematician.

About his work in life has mostly become known through a wide correspondence that the Farm had with other scientists. A collection of essays, which he more than once tried to make, was never implemented. In fact, this is a logical result in such congestion on the basic work in court. During the life of Pierre none of the mass of his writings was not published.

One of the first works in the field of mathematics at Pierre's Farm - renewal of two lost books-the writings of Apollonius called “flat On the ground”. The tremendous merit of Pierre to science most people see in the introduction to analytic geometry infinitely small quantities. He made this very important step in 1629. Also in the late twenties Pierre Fermat found ways of finding tangents and extrema. And in 1636-m is fully complete description of the method of finding it was handed over to Mersenne, and with difficulty could see anyone.

In 1637-38 years, the French mathematician Pierre Fermat rapid way argued with no less than an outstanding mathematician Rene Descartes. Controversy has arisen around the “Method of finding the lows and highs”. Descartes does not fully understand the method and do not understand it, for this reason he was subjected to unfair criticism. In the summer of 1638 Pierre de Fermat sends Mersenne to transfer Descartes updated and more rich details of the presentation of his method. In his letter reflected his low-key manner because it's written in a very dry and quiet manner, but at the same time it has a certain amount of irony. In his letter even contains a direct mockery of the misunderstanding of Descartes. Farm never became senseless and intemperate polemics, he always adhered to a flat and cold tone. It was not a dispute, but rather, the conversation was like the communication between the teacher and the student, which is something not understood.

To Pierre's Farm ways of finding the areas was developed by Italian Cavalieri. However, by 1642, the Farm opened the way for finding the areas which are limited by any “parabolas” and “hyperbole". He was able to prove that the area of almost any unlimited shapes can still have the final value.

One of the first began the study of the problem to the computation of lengths of arcs of curves. He managed to sum up the solution of the problem to find some space. The calculation area was limited to all tasks on the curves. There was only one drop in order to enter a new and more abstract concept of "integral".

In a further positive outcome of the definition of “space” in search of relationship with a “method of tangents and extrema”. There is evidence that the Farm already saw a clear relationship, but none of his writings did not reflect this point of view.

Unlike most of his associates in the case, Pierre de Fermat was a pure mathematician and never tried to explore other branches of science. Probably for this reason his powerful contribution in all of mathematics is so deep and large.

The Most important contribution of the Farm to mathematics and to this day I consider the creation of an entirely new discipline-numeric theory. Scientist throughout his career was interested in arithmetic tasks, which are sometimes invented and made himself. In the process of finding answers to the questions posed in the tasks, the Farm is often discovered something completely new and unique. New algorithms and laws, theorems and properties - all these things formed the basis of the theory of numbers, now known to every schoolboy.

Thus, Pierre de Fermat discovered patterns for natural numbers and set them for centuries. Works on the natural numbers are called the ‘theorem of arithmetic". One such example is the famous “small theorem”. Later it served as Eulerian as a special case for his labors. It is also known that the work of Pierre Fermat asked the basis of the Lagrange theorem on the sum of 4 squares.

Of Course, most of the works of Pierre stands out for its great and powerful theorem. She for many years, even decades, were forced to “break of the head” the greatest mathematicians, and even after it was published in 1995, a new and very different methods of proof still go to the Department of mathematics in many universities in the world.

Although the Farm had left only a brief summary of their labors and fragmentary information, it was his discoveries have given impetus to many other outstanding geniuses of mathematics. In his honor named one of the most prestigious and old high schools in France-Lycée Pierre Fermat in Toulouse.

During his most active activities in the field of mathematics, the Farm is rapidly moving up in a court case. In 1648 Pierre is a member of the house of edicts. Such a high position is evidence of higher academic position.

In Castres, where the Farm has become the edict, he dies at the exit to the next session of the court. Death came to mathematics at the age of just 64. The eldest son of the scientist undertook to present the works of the father to the people and released a number of his research.

It was Pierre Fermat. His biography was intense, but life has left a trace at all times.

The Works of this giant of mathematics it is impossible to overestimate and underestimate, because they laid a solid Foundation for many researchers. Pierre Fermat, photos (portraits) of which are given in the article, had a strong character, who all his life helped him to achieve his goals.

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**Alin Trodden** - author of the article, editor

"Hi, I'm Alin Trodden. I write texts, read books, and look for impressions. And I'm not bad at telling you about it. I am always happy to participate in interesting projects."

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