The Order of St. Anne was founded in 1735, Duke Karl Friedrich, a German by birth. He in 1725 married the daughter of Emperor Peter the great, Anna. Originally the order was supposed to be the dynastic awards, but later his status had changed significantly.
The Duchess Anna did not live long in a happy marriage, and died in 1728, almost immediately after the difficult birth of the future heir to the throne. After the death of his beloved wife, Carl Friedrich decided to perpetuate her memory, transferring the image of the Duchess with the image on the order of the next generations of heirs to the throne. During the life of this Duke received the order of 15 German subjects.
From this time the rulers of Russia did not stay long in power, leaving the throne through no fault of their reasons.
The Future heir to the Russian and Holstein thrones called Karl Peter Ulrich. He inherited the throne after Elizabeth II, who had no children of their own, an official decree has decided the throne to his nephew, and then the boy moved from the Duchy of Holstein to Russia.
Because the order of St. Anne was a dynastic award, moved to Russia, Peter III, became Grand master of the order inherited from the father took the highest award of the Duchy of Holstein himself. After in 1742, he formally ascended the throne, the order decided to build the rank of state award in Russia.
The History of the Russian Empire directly to our days is filled with tragic events, the most significant of which was the incident that left an indelible mark in modern history. It happened in 1762, when the reign of Paul III lasted about 6 months, was tragically cut short. It happened as a result of plotting the offset from the throne, which staged his own wife. After his death in pre-revolutionary Russia had a new heir to the throne — Paul I, born in 1754.
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Because at the time of death of the current Emperor, Paul I was still too young to rule the throne, the entire weight of the Board rests on the shoulders of his mother, which was directly responsible for the death of his father. History of the Russian Empire receives at this time a significant boost to development under the leadership of Catherine II. Without a doubt, the most famous Empress of the time outside of Russia.
Despite the fact that awards of the Russian Empire was distinguished by a special grace, Paul I, had tender feelings towards the order of St. Anna. The reason for this is quite simple. At one of Moscow's methods, organized in 1762, to Paul I was presented the most beautiful woman of that time was Anna Petrovna, the daughter of a local Senator P. V. Lopukhin.
She was so pleased the Emperor that he insisted on moving her entire family to St. Petersburg. The father of the girl received from the Emperor the title of Prince and family motto. Since that time, the Hebrew translation of the name of Anna - “grace” became the pride of the princely family Lopukhins.
It is from this moment begins the main story of the order in pre-revolutionary Russia. According to official documents of the Imperial family, preserved to our days. Catherine II considered the attitude of the son to the order a fun children's game, but since that time, as the future Emperor met with Anna Petrovna, he began to spend more and hidden meaning. Now the order of St. Anna meant to him as much as for the founder of the order of Karl Friedrich.
According to surviving correspondence between Catherine II and the tutor of Paul I established a special Imperial decree, according to which Paul I had a legal right to award on his behalf that the order of any nobleman, distinguished special courage.
But for defiance of the Emperor that was not enough, and he decided to secretly terrible mother, does not consider the order of St. Anna deserved reward, to create many small copies in order to informally reward their subjects. Wear them relied on the hilt of his sword so that when necessary, it was easy to hide from prying eyes, and in the case of armed conflict to cover from the punch.
In 1773, Catherine II fully waives any and all rights, privileges and titles that are provided to her and her heirs to the throne of Holstein. From that time on the order of 1 degree is no longer awarded to the heirs of the Imperial dynasty, but as Paul I remained the official Grandmaster of the order behind him remained the official right to award them on their own.
The Coronation of Paul I fell on 12 Nov 1797. The day he officially ascends to the throne, and pre-revolutionary Russia gets in its historythe new Emperor, one of the first decrees of which is the construction of order of St. Anne to the rank of state awards and its division into 3 main degree. Now the copy of the order, which was made in his youth of the Emperor, have obtained legal status and belonged to 3 degrees.
Initially it was assumed that the rulers of Russia will be awarded the order of only officers. Appearance order directly depended on the degree to which he belonged. Its dimensions depending on the degree ranged from 3.5 cm to 5.2 cm
1. The order of St. Anne 1st degree - instructionals diamonds. To wear this kind of the order relied on a wide red ribbon with yellow stripes running along the edges. At the same time awarded him with the silver star. And a star it was necessary to throw over the right shoulder, and left through the order. On a gold background was located an eight-pointed star in the center of which was placed a red cross. On its circumference in Latin letters was displayed the motto of the order Amantibus Justitiam Pietatem Fidem, consequently, from the translation it can be concluded that they were awarded the faithful and pious people.
The red color of the cross was achieved by coating with enamel, surrounded by a fine gold border. In the center of the cross was the image of Duchess Anna white outlet in full growth. It was also surrounded by a gold border. On the reverse side of the order was located, the monogram of the Duchess, made with enamel blue color. Above the facial image of Anna hovered two angels, holding in their hands the Imperial crown.
In 1829, the diamond paste was only on the awards given to foreign citizens, and from 1874 was abolished the image of the Imperial crown to the order of the first degree.
2. The order of St. Anne 2nd degree Instructionals rock crystal. It was necessary to wear on the neck, hooking to a narrow ribbon. Mostly given to persons not embraced the Christian faith, and merchants. However, the order of the image of Anna was replaced by a double-headed eagle. On the reverse of the order made by azure, shows the abbreviation of the motto of the order of the AIPF, the purpose of which was to remind the awardees that the Countess was the daughter of Peter I. Silver star were not entitled.
3. The order of St. Anna of 3 degree, The most common variant. To wear relied on the hilt of his sword. Was a small circle, inside which was situated an enamel cross in a ring of the same material, and both parts were made in a bright red color.
13 years after official recognition as a state award carrying the rules were changed. Now it was necessary to pin her to the Bantu, whose color was immediately specify, belongs to the awarded to military or to civilians. According to the decree of 1847 the order of 3 degrees, it was decided to reward the officials who have served at least 12 years at one position is not below 13 class. Since that time the order has actually been relied on as a reward for long service.
4. The order of St. Anna, 4th class, was established by the son of Paul I, Emperor Alexander I. This degree was awarded only to military officers. The order was supposed to wear on the weapons that are used in the form of troops, where he served as a decorated person.
Among the subjects of the Russian Emperor Alexander I the order of 4 degrees was called "Cranberry". The thing is that its size does not exceed 2.5 cm and was exactly the same color as the berry. If an officer who has previously been awarded the order of 4 degrees, are awarded a higher award, to wear them relied at the same time.
The name of the order of 4 degrees was changed exactly 1 year after he changed the rule of wearing of the order of 3 degrees. Now he was supposed to add a mandatory prefix “courage”.
Since 1857, the Emperor issued a decree, in which military officers should have been awarded not only the order, where the image of the Duchess Anne was replaced by two crossed swords, but the bow is bright red, making people's insight once again received a confirmation, because now any who was seen with a similar award, the eye called “Knight of the order of Cranberry”.
The Award "Cranberry" the order was made until the revolution of 1917, when all the awards of the tsarist Empire was officially abolished by the new government.
Fine jewelry precious stones of the order of 1 or 2 was substantially modified, although this innovation and did not affect reward foreign nationals.
In the late nineteenth century has changed and the order awarding the order of 3 degrees. Already in 1847, in order to be assigned to the award was required to serve in the army or in the post officer not less than 8 years. In addition, changes and appearance of the order of 3 degrees. From 1855 to it was added 2 crossed swords.
Until the mid-nineteenth century, each person assigned to the award, received in addition certain privileges for the order. So, in addition to any degrees of the order relied and noblethe title, however, because of the high prevalence of awarded this rule changed, leaving the title tribal nobility, was awarded the order of 1 degree. The rest received sole title of nobility does not go to the heirs.
In that case, if the awards were awarded to the merchants or persons who have not accepted Christianity, they became honorary citizens of the Russian Empire, without getting the noble title.
The Most famous personalities awarded with the order:
The badge of St. Anna, and Anna medal, established in 1796 by Paul 1 and was a gold medal, in the center of which was a red cross. It was awarded to military service which has exceeded 20 years.
In addition to the award relied more and a cash award, the amount of which is directly dependent on the merit and status, reward, and could reach 100 rubles.
Order 3 or 4 degrees without the bow and cash incentives were awarded to non-commissioned officers, the seniority of which accounted for more than 10 years.
In the future, it is awarded to wives of prominent Russian figures for useful public activity. It was originally conceived as a reward of good conduct of the Imperial wife during the unsuccessful Prussian campaign in 1711.
According to legend, after the Russian troops were surrounded by the Turks, Catherine donated her jewels to bribe the Turkish commander, allowing troops managed to gain peace and to return home. Witnesses of this event have not confirmed the transfer of the jewels as a bribe, but the pregnant Empress was marked by all the military. The order was 2 degrees different variety of gemstone. The first degree was encrusted with diamonds and the second rock crystal.
At the end of this article I would like to stress once again the invaluable contribution of the ruling dynasty in pre-revolutionary Russia in the creation of the modern state, the history of which until the revolution of 1917 can be traced to the orders, received the most outstanding personalities of the time.
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