Countries that are not landlocked, as a rule, suffer from a number of problems. In the first place significantly more complicated process of sales of finished products on the world market. What modern States are deprived of access to the World ocean and how this impacts on the economy and well-being?
The Influence of various geographical factors on economic development first described by Adam Smith in his famous work "Wealth of Nations". And that access to the sea, that is to important trading routes, a scientist noted as an important prerequisite for the success and prosperity of a particular state.
Of Course, since 1776 (when he published a book of Smith) much of the world has changed. Significant development has reached ground transportation, there was a rail connection, and pipelines, nevertheless the transportation of raw materials and goods across the ocean still play a major role in world trade. Therefore, the countries of foreign Europe, with access to the sea (such as France, Germany or the UK), have direct access to any global markets.
In turn, isolated in this regard, the States face a variety of economic and traffic problems. In addition, they are very vulnerable and in military-strategic terms, because neighboring countries can easily "cut off" their access to the ocean.
To date, 44 States of the world deprived of access to the ocean. It should be noted that this number does not include the unrecognized or partially recognized by the international community of the country. They are all marked on the map below in green.
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Should pay attention to the fact that not landlocked countries on three continents: Africa, Eurasia, and South America. But in North America there is no nation without access to the ocean. Most of the countries are landlocked in Africa (16) and in Europe (14). On mainland Australia it is not, as it entirely occupied the same state.
Not landlocked countries of the former USSR (at least most of them). Such a modern state like Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan and is completely included in the closed region of Eurasia.
Among isolated inland States the largest in area is Kazakhstan, and the population of Ethiopia. In this African country is home to more than 90 million people who can't boast of having the sea coast in their homeland.
On our planet there are others who are "lucky" twice. So, Liechtenstein and Uzbekistan is surrounded on all sides solely by the States are also deprived of access to the ocean.
In Europe such state - 14, plus two unrecognized (Kosovo and the Transnistrian Moldovan Republic). So, you do not have access to the sea of Europe:
A Classic example of isolated from the sea state in Europe is the Republic of Moldova. The country is literally "sandwiched" on both sides of the two neighboring countries - Romania (West) and Ukraine (North and East). From the Black sea it separates at least forty kilometers.
The Main problem facing all isolated from the sea state, is the problematic nature of their products to world markets. According to world Bank estimates the cost of transporting goods from a country are almost two times more expensive than shipping from the coastal state. Of course, transport costs affect price of goods for consumers, and on its competitiveness.
In Addition, countries without direct access to the ocean are more vulnerable and in military-strategic terms. So, the neighboring state may simply block the exit of the isolated country to open sea in the event of any regional or planetary armed conflict.
Part of the tenth United Nations Convention on the law of the sea guarantees any country access to the open sea. How does it becoming reality? By the conclusion of special treaties that allow transit. That's why, for example, in the Polish port city of Szczecin you can see the ship under the Czech flag. The ships all land-locked States on the high seas enjoy the same rights as the rest of the court.
So on the planet, there are 44 States that have no direct connection with the world ocean. In Europe landlocked countries: Andorra, Vatican, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, San Marino, Austria, Hungary, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Switzerland, Belarus, Macedonia, Serbia and Moldova. However, many of these European countries are quite successful and prosperous in its development.
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