Introductory turn. Introductory words, phrases and sentences. Setting punctuation

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2019-05-15 06:00:41

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In his speech, people often use introductory design to show their attitude to what they tell you. The introductory turnover must be allocated by commas, and in speech such turnover should be allocated to the intonation. Let us consider some of the rules and peculiarities of use of this type of construction.

Definition of introductory turnover

Introductory turnover – words, phrases and sentences that reflect the attitude of the speaker to what he says, or indicate the source of information. These revolutions are part of the proposals, but are not members and do not enter into syntactic relations with other members of the proposals and who are not members of the proposal.

How to determine induction design

introductory volume

Since the same word can act as introductory design, as a normal part of the sentence, you need to know how to determine such momentum in the Russian language. Examples will help to better understand this issue:

  • First, if to throw out from the text of the introductory design, the meaning of the text is not lost. Compare: “the Company may already be reorganized” and “the Company is still possible to reorganize”. In the first case the word is introductory, because the meaning is not lost, which is not true for the second option. However, this method of verification is not always correct, because the structure can be maintained. In this case, you should pay attention to the meaning of the phrase. For example: "Thus, this problem has been solved". If by “so” means “this way" it is not an introductory phrase, if understood as a “so”, this figure of speech should be regarded as introductory and should be sure to select the comma.
  • Second, the introductory words are not sentences and therefore to them or they are impossible to raise the question. Compare: “I think now all understand” and “It seems a little tired”. In the first case, ask the question to the word “think” it is impossible, and in this case it is the introductory word. In the second case, you can ask the question ‘What does?”, the word “seems” acts as the predicate.
  • Third, one introductory word or phrase in the sentence can be easily replaced by another, while the meaning of the whole sentence will not be lost. For example: "She might have called him myself and told them what happened". In this embodiment, when replacing the “possible” to “likely” meaning of the whole sentence will not be lost.

Also, when using as input structures of certain words and phrases may have some difficulties. Let us consider each of them.

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Words: speaking generally, in short, actually, in fact, the truth, or rather as introductory words

Words: speaking generally, in short, actually, in fact, the truth is, to be exact - will be used as an introductory offer, if they are meaning you can add “speaking”. Compare: “We are going tomorrow to go into the woods” and “This outfit came her way”. It is obvious that in the first case, the word “incidentally” is an introductory, because it can be “speaking”, and it is necessary to select from two sides by commas.

Features of using “however” as introductory words

figure of speech

“However” can act both as a Union and as an introductory word. If “however” can be completely replaced by the word “but”, in this case it is Union. For example, we wanted to come to visit, but bad weather spoiled all plans.

If the word “however” is in the middle or in the end of the sentence and does not serve to link two complex or parts of a sentence, it acts as the introductory word is obligatory and its selection in the text by commas. For example, we wanted to come to visit, the rain, however, spoiled all the plans.

“Finally” as introductory words

“Finally” can act as an introductory figure of speech. In this case, the word defines the procedure of submission of information by the author. For example: "first, he's young, second, strong, finally, he is full of strength and energy."

If “finally” acts as the circumstances of time and it can be replaced by “the end” or “finally”, this word is not opening. Example: We walked an incredibly long time, and finally came to the forest.

Phrases, which are often perceived for the initial construction

Many believe that: literally, perhaps, in addition, if, suddenly, finally, eventually, because, here, after all, hardly, hardly, even, exactly, exclusively, like, just, like, besides, I suppose, meanwhile, the proposal on solution by the order, approximately, therefore, though almost determined just, supposedly, like – it is the introduction of momentum, but it's not. These words and phrases do not act as introductory designs and highlight them with a comma is not necessary.

Types of water revs at their value

sentences with phraseological turnovers

All the introductory words and phrases are divided into several categories depending on which values Express the introductory speech. The examples clearly showdifferences:

  1. Introductory momentum, which Express the evaluation of the degree of reliability of the information (certainty, doubt): surely, certainly, undoubtedly, in all probability, needless to say, apparently, do others. For example: "All of the villagers were indeed very nice people."
  2. Words that Express the generality of the described event: it happens, it happens, as usual, as usual, as always, the custom, and others. For example: "the Christmas party is held, as always, in the auditorium of the kindergarten."
  3. Introductory designs that Express the emotions and feelings of the speaker: fortunately, fortunately, unfortunately, to delight, to surprise, unfortunately, to surprise, to regret, to sadness, to shame, the hour is uneven, strangely enough, as if on purpose, what good. For example: "To my surprise, she was going very quickly and I have not had long to wait."
  4. Introductory words that indicate a sequence of ideas: firstly, secondly, on the one hand, on the other hand, consequently, conversely, finally, on the contrary, however, in General, in particular, by the way, by the way, so, then, therefore, moreover, thus, for example, so. For example: "Her smile testified about a beautiful life, but, on the contrary, tried to hide all of her misfortune."
  5. Part of the introductory structures indicates the nature of the utterance: in short, in short, generally speaking, in short, so to speak, in other words, better to say, in other words, to put it mildly, roughly speaking, between us speaking, in truth, to tell the truth, it is ridiculous to say and others. For example: "the truth is, a meal prepared by new chef, gave me a great impression."
  6. Introduction of a design that indicate the source of information reported: according to, according to, according to, according to, according to rumors, in your opinion, in my opinion, they say, according to my calculations, they say, as you know, from the point of view and others. For example: "According to the witness, the suspect at the time of the crime was at home".
  7. Introductory words, which are directed to the reader, to attract his attention: see, see, see, see, see, understand, excuse, imagine, forgive, please, please, remember, remember, please, agree, look, let, notice yourself and others. For example: "the Dumplings, you see, one of the favorite dishes of students and bachelors."

Parts of speech, which can serve as introductory design

All types of water structures can be in different parts of speech. According to this criterion the introductory design can be presented in such parts of speech as:

  • Noun with a preposition: fortunately, to the delight, no doubt;the use of verbal participle phrases
  • Adjective: the most important thing, in General, at most;
  • Pronoun: meanwhile, furthermore, also;
  • Adverb: of course, undoubtedly, certainly, of course;
  • Verb: seemed, think, say, assume that;
  • The infinitive: to see, to admit, to know;
  • Combinations with the gerund: to be honest, roughly speaking, the truth;
  • Complete sentences: I think he hopes, as I remember;
  • Impersonal sentences: all well remember, seemed to me, she dreamed of;
  • Indefinite-personal sentences: as usual talked about it, thought about it.

Punctuation when using introductory structures

As mentioned earlier, the introductory phrase or word in the text with the two sides are distinguished by commas. In some cases, instead of one of the commas, you will use dash. If an introductory phrase was not implemented fully, then put a dash after it. For example: "on the one hand, wouldn't let me go to the party, on the other – I couldn't miss her in any way, because there are all my friends."

If the introductory word is in the text before generalizing the word, but in front of all homogeneous parts of a sentence, use a dash instead of the first comma. Example: "TV, phone, computer, refrigerator – in short, all the appliances in the house worked properly, despite significant surges in the morning."

Punctuation when using introductory sentences

figures of speech in RussianHighlighting the text of the introductory sentences in several ways:

  • Using commas. For example: "She I am sure will be happy without me";
  • Using the braces. This method of allocation is used if the introductory sentence acts as additional comments or clarifications to the text. For example: "My appearance (I noticed) confused all the others";
  • Using the dash. Also used if the introductory sentence – additional comment or clarification to the text. For example: "Customers – two – behaved with great restraint".

The Use of verbal participle phrases, and the introductory structures

People sometimes confuse introductory turns and other turns of phrase in the Russian language. Many believe that the participial turnover – this is only an introductory view of turnover, since these types of structures have much in common. Use of verbal participle phrases similar to introductory sentences, moreover, if the proposal to throw the participial turnover, the meaning of the sentence will not change, as well as with introductory momentum. Despite this, these types of designs have a number of differences. First, the participial turnover answers the question: “That making?” and “doing What?”, and introduction to turnoverto put the question impossible. Second, in the sentence the participial turnover is determined by the circumstance, and the introductory structures are not part of the sentence.

Differences between phraseological and introduction of revolutions

introductory momentum in RussianAlso people have often questioned the sentences with phraseological turnovers. Some people try to make idiomatic expression for introductory. But it is not. Idiomatic expression – it is stable in structure and composition, as well as lexically indivisible phrase that is perceived as a whole.

Unlike the introductory structures of phraseological expressions in Russian language in the letter should not even stand out punctuation marks. Also phraseological turnover may put the question, and therefore this design is a part of the sentence. Thus, sentences with phraseological turnovers should not be confused with sentences with introductory designs, because it deals with different types of designs.

The Distinction of comparative and introductory momentum

figures of speech examplesIn Addition to all the above types of constructions with introductory momentum, often confused with comparative speed and trying to apply all the rules for them, as for induction. Such designs are very different from each other. Comparative turnover, as well as idiomatic and adverbial-participial, is a part of the sentence, but stands always as a comparison. Comparative revolutions in the Russian language do not always stand out punctuation, so you can make the mistake of confusing comparative circulation with the introductory.

All of the above types of the momentum and induction turnover have one common feature-it is the intonation selection. It is this allocation in the first place, casts doubt upon the correct determination of the introductory design.

The Use of speech input structures is necessary, because they indicate emotional intensity of the text and show the attitude of the speaker towards the object of conversation. Identify and correctly allocate in speech introductory momentum in the Russian language will not be difficult if you know all the simple rules that were described in this article.

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