Mineral gypsum: description and application


2018-03-22 09:36:15




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Gypsum – one of the most common minerals in the world. It is mined from the earth everywhere and are widely used in industry, building industry, medicine. In this article you will find a detailed description and photos of the mineral gypsum. In addition, learn about the main spheres of its application.

Gypsum Mineral: description and chemical composition

The name of the mineral, rock, and related construction material originated from the Greek word gipsos (“Mel”). About the cast humanity knows since ancient times. It lost its popularity in our days.

Gypsum-a soft mineral. Incidentally, he is the reference for the scale of relative hardness, Mohs, adopted in the early nineteenth century (hardness – 1,5-2,0).

gypsum mineral

The chemical composition of the mineral gypsum – aqueous calcium sulfate. It comprises such elements as calcium (Ca), sulphur (S) and oxygen (O). Write out the chemical composition of gypsum more details:

  • Sulfur trioxide, SO3 – 46 %;
  • Calcium oxide, CaO – 33 %;
  • Water is H2O – 21 %.

Genetic classification: monoclinic crystal system. This mineral is characterized by a layered crystal structure and a very perfect cleavage (it can be easily split off separate thin “petals”).

Mineral gypsum: properties and distinctive features

Here are the main physical characteristics of the gypsum, on which it can be distinguished from other minerals:

  • The fracture is uneven, but flexible;
  • Luster: glassy to silky or matte;
  • Hardness: low (easily scratched with fingernail);
  • The mineral is slowly soluble in water;
  • The touch is not fat;
  • Leaves behind a visible white line;
  • Color: from white to grey (sometimes may be pinkish).

Gypsum does not react with acids, but is soluble in the hydrogen chloride (HCl). May have a different transparency, while transparent mineral gypsum is found in nature more often. When heated above 107 degrees Celsius gypsum becomes plaster, which, in turn, upon wetting with water hardens.


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mineral variety of gypsum

Gypsum is often confused with the anhydrite. To distinguish from each other, these two minerals can be the hardness (the second is much harder than the first).

The Genesis of the mineral and its distribution in nature

Gypsum is a typical mineral of sedimentary origin. Most often it is formed from natural aqueous solutions (for example, at the bottom of decaying seas and reservoirs). The mineral gypsum also can accumulate in the weathering zones of native sulfur and sulfides. In this form, the so-called gypsum hats – loose or compacted rock mass contaminated with numerous impurities.

In the sedimentary rock gypsum often found accompanied by sand, rock salt, anhydrite, sulfur, limestone and iron. The door to the latter, as a rule, gives it a brownish hue.

In nature, gypsum occurs in the form of elongated presnovodnykh crystals. It also often forms dense scaly, fibrous, or “pill” aggregation. Often gypsum is presented in the form of so-called rose or swallowtails.

Basic variety of the mineral

Geologists have identified several dozen varieties of gypsum. The mineral can be fibrous, satin, thick, foamy, fine-grained, bone, cubic, etc.

The main varieties of plaster include:

  • Selenite;
  • Alabaster;
  • “Marino glass”.

Selenite – a translucent mineral with a silky luster. The name comes from the Greek word selena – “moon”. This mineral really has a slight bluish tint. Selenite is used as an ornamental stone in the manufacture of budget jewelry.

gypsum mineral photo

Alabaster-a soft, easily destructible material in white color, the product of gypsum dehydration. Widely used in producing garden sculptures, vases, tables, moldings and other interior items.

“Marino glass" (maiden or lady of ice) - is another variety of gypsum, a transparent mineral with pearly, or colored tint. Has a unique structure of the crystal lattice. In the old days, "Marino glass” widely used in the design of icons and Holy images.

Main deposits of gypsum

The Mineral gypsum is widespread in the earth's crust everywhere. Its deposits are found in the sediments of almost all periods of the geological history of the planet – from the Cambrian to the Quaternary. Deposits of gypsum (and anhydrite accompanying it) in sedimentary rocks have the form of lenses or layers with a capacity of 20-30 meters.

Every year, from the bowels of the earth recovered over 100 million tons of gypsum. The world's largest producers of valuable material, the United States, Iran, Canada, Turkey and Spain.

mineral plaster description

In Russia, the main deposits of this breed are concentrated on the Western slopes of the Ural mountains, the Volga region and the Kama region, Tatarstan and Krasnodar Krai. The main deposits of gypsum in the country: Pavlovskoe, Novomoskovsk, Saratovskoe, Baskunchakskaya, Latinskoe and Bolokhovskaya.

The Scope of application of gypsum

The Scope of gypsum is very wide: construction, medicine, repair, agriculture, chemical industry.

Since ancient times, this mineral was cutsculptures and a variety of interior items-vases, table tops, balustrades, bas-reliefs, etc. it is often made Of rods, blocks and plates (so-called drywall). In “cheese” the gypsum is used in agriculture as fertilizer. It scattered in the fields and wetlands to normalize the acidity of the soil.

Where else to apply gypsum? The mineral is widely used in the paper and chemical industries to produce cement, sulphuric acid, paints and glazes. In addition, everyone who ever broke a leg or a hand, a familiar one, its scope – medicine.

gypsum mineral properties

Gypsum as a building material

A building Material gypsum is obtained from gypsum. This breed is fired in special kilns and then ground into a fine powder. In the future the raw materials widely used in construction and decoration.

In an industry has its own classification of gypsum – technical. So, there are the following varieties:

  • High-strength gypsum (used in medicine and dentistry; it produces a variety of mixes and molds for porcelain industry);
  • Polymer (only used in traumatology for the imposition fixing bandages for fractures);
  • Sculpted (the name speaks for itself – the main component of putty mixtures, various figurines and Souvenirs);
  • Acrylic (lightweight plaster used for facades of buildings);
  • Fireproof (non-combustible material, which often produces plasterboard and building blocks).

In Addition, there is a separate marking of the plaster for strength. According to her, stands 12 brands of gypsum – from G2 to Г25.

Construction and finishing works are also widely used alabaster. Compared to gypsum, it is more durable and easy to process. However, without special additives alabaster virtually unusable as it immediately dries up.

It is Important to note that even at the present, such a high level of development of science and industry worthy replacement gypsum has not been found yet.

gypsum is a soft mineral

Healing and magical properties of the stone

Gypsum knowingly used in medicine. It contributes to the accretion of bone tissues, eliminates excessive sweating, cures tuberculosis of the spine. Gypsum is used in cosmetics and – as a component of tonic masks.

Since Ancient times, this mineral was a kind of “medicine” from the human pride, hubris and excessive arrogance. In magic it is believed that the gypsum is able to tell the person how he should act in a given situation. He brings good luck and prosperity. Astrologers suggest to wear amulets made from plaster people born under the signs of Capricorn, Aries and Leo.

“desert rose” – what is it?

Such a beautiful name called mineral aggregate, one of the varieties of gypsum. He really resembles externally the flower buds. The units consist of crystalline aggregates of lenticular-lobes characteristic of the species. Color "desert rose" can be quite varied. It is determined by the color of the soil or sand in which it was formed.

transparent gypsum mineral

Quite an interesting formation mechanism of these “rose”. They are formed in the most arid climatic conditions. When in the desert it rains occasionally, the moisture instantly absorbs the sand. Water interacts with particles of plaster which are washed out along with her deep. Later the water evaporates and the gypsum kristallizuetsya in the sandy ground, creating the most unexpected and bizarre forms.

“desert rose" well-known nomadic tribes of the African Sahara. In some cultures this region has a tradition to give these stone flowers to your beloved on Valentine's Day.

Article in other languages:

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BE: https://tostpost.com/be/adukacyya/36-m-neral-g-ps-ap-sanne-prymyanenne.html

DE: https://tostpost.com/de/bildung/33-mineral-gips-beschreibung-und-anwendung.html

ES: https://tostpost.com/es/la-educaci-n/38-el-mineral-de-yeso-la-descripci-n-y-la-aplicaci-n-de.html

HI: https://tostpost.com/hi/education/20-mineral-gypsum-description-and-application.html

JA: https://tostpost.com/ja/education/19-mineral-gypsum-description-and-application.html

KK: https://tostpost.com/kk/b-l-m/36-mineral-gips-sipattamasy-zh-ne-oldanu.html

PL: https://tostpost.com/pl/edukacja/39-minera-gips-opis-i-zastosowanie.html

PT: https://tostpost.com/pt/educa-o/36-o-mineral-gipsita-descri-o-e-aplica-o.html

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UK: https://tostpost.com/uk/osv-ta/38-m-neral-g-ps-opis-zastosuvannya.html

ZH: https://tostpost.com/zh/education/11-mineral-gypsum-description-and-application.html

Alin Trodden - author of the article, editor
"Hi, I'm Alin Trodden. I write texts, read books, and look for impressions. And I'm not bad at telling you about it. I am always happy to participate in interesting projects."

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