Pulse: the pulse feature, pulse chart by age


2018-03-18 04:20:45




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During the contraction of the heart into the vascular system is pushed another portion of blood. Kick her in the artery wall creates vibrations which spread through the vessels to the periphery gradually fade. They received the name of pulse.

What is a pulse?

In the human body there are three varieties of blood vessels: arteries, veins and capillaries. The ejection of blood from heart one way or another affects each of them, forcing their walls to oscillate. Of course, as the arteries closest to the heart vessels more susceptible to the cardiac output. The vibrations of their walls well-defined palpation, and in the large vessels visible to the naked eye. That is why arterial pulse is the most significant for diagnostics.

pulse characteristics of the pulseCapillaries-the smallest blood vessels in the human body, but even they reflected the work of the heart. Their walls vary in the rhythm of heart contractions, however normal it can be determined only by special devices. Visible capillary pulse – sign of pathology.

Vein removed from the heart so that their walls do not fluctuate. The so-called venous pulse – the transfer of vibrations from nearby large arteries.

Why to determine the pulse?

What is the value for the diagnosis are the fluctuations of the vascular walls? Why is it so important?

The Pulse gives an indication of the hemodynamics, about how effectively reduces the cardiac muscle, the fullness of the vascular bed, the rhythm of heart beats.

In many pathological processes modified pulse characteristic of the pulse ceases to conform to the norm. This allows to suspect that the cardiovascular system is not all right.

pulse at rest

What parameters determine the pulse? Characteristics of the pulse

  1. Rhythm. Normal heart beats at equal intervals of time, and hence the heart rate should be rhythmic.
  2. Frequency. Pulse waves in normal as much as beats per minute.
  3. Voltage. This figure depends on the magnitude of systolic blood pressure. The higher it is, the harder it is to compress with the fingers the artery, i.e., the voltage pulse is large.
  4. Content. Depends on the volume of blood ejected by the heart in systole.
  5. Quantity. This concept integrates filling and voltage.
  6. Shape – one more parameter that defines the pulse. Characteristics of the pulse in this case depend on changes in blood pressure in the vessels during the systole (contraction) and diastole (relaxation) of the heart.


In violation of generation of the pulse by the heart muscle the rhythm of heart contractions is changing and with it changes the pulse. Separate oscillations of the vascular walls begin to fall, or to appear prematurely, or to follow each other through unequal intervals.


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human norm by age

What are arrhythmias?

Arrhythmia if you change the work of the sinus node (the area of the myocardium that generates impulses that lead to contraction of the heart muscle):

  1. Sinus tachycardia – increasing the frequency of contractions.
  2. Sinus bradycardia – decrease in frequency reductions.
  3. Sinus arrhythmia – of the heart through unequal intervals.

Ectopic arrhythmias. Their appearance is made possible by the emergence in the myocardium of the hearth with the activity higher than the sinus node. In this situation, the new pacemaker will suppress the activity of the latter and impose the rhythm of your heart contractions.

  1. Beats The emergence of an extraordinary heartbeat. Depending on the localization of ectopic focus of excitation beats are atrial, atrioventricular and ventricular.
  2. Paroxysmal tachycardia-sudden acceleration of rhythm (to 180-240 beats per minute). As extrasystoles can be atrial, atrioventricular and ventricular.

Violation of the pulse to the myocardium (the blockade). Depending on the localization of the problem, hindering the normal progress of the nervous impulse from the sinus node blockade are divided into groups:

  1. Sinoaurikuliarnaya blockade (impulse does not go beyond the sinus node).
  2. Vnutriepreserdna blockade.
  3. Atrioventricular block (the impulse is not transmitted from the Atria to the ventricles). When complete atrioventricular block (grade III) becomes possible when there are two pacemaker (sinus node and the point of excitation in the ventricles).
  4. Intraventricular blockade.

Separately should stay on and flicker predserdy and ventricles. These States are also called absolute arrhythmia. The sinus node in this case ceases to be a pacemaker and the myocardium of the Atria or ventricles are formed multiple ectopic foci of excitation that sets the heart rhythm with great frequency reduction. Naturally, in such circumstances, the heart muscle is not able to adequately contract. Therefore, this pathology (especially of the ventricles) is life-threatening.

heartbeats per minute

Heart rate

Heart rate at rest for adults is 60-80 beats per minute. Of course, this is for life change. Pulse rate by age is significantly different.

Table pulse


Heart rate (beats per minute)

1st month

130 - 140

1 month – 1 year

120 – 130

1 – 2 years

90 – 100

3 – 7 years

85 – 95

8 – 14

70 – 80

20 – 30 years

60 – 80

40 – 50 years

75 – 85

Over 50 years

85 – 95.

Perhaps the discrepancy between the number of heartbeats and the number of pulse waves. This occurs when the bloodstream is thrown a small blood volume (heart failure, reducing the amount of circulating blood). In this case, vibrations of the vessel wall may not occur.

the pulse on the handThus, the pulse of the people (normal age is indicated above) is not always determined on peripheral arteries. However, this does not mean that the heart is also not reduced. Perhaps the reason is the reduced ejection fraction.


Depending on the changes in productivity to changes in the pulse. Characteristics of the pulse at the voltage it provides for the division into the following types:

  1. Solid pulse. Due to high blood pressure (BP), particularly systolic. Clamp the artery with your fingers is very difficult. The appearance of the variety of the pulse indicates the need for urgent correction HELL antihypertensive drugs.
  2. Soft pulse. Artery is compressed easily, and it's not very good, because this type of pulse indicates a too low blood pressure. It can be caused by different reasons: reduction of circulating blood volume, decrease in vascular tone, and inefficient heart rate.


Depending on the changes in productivity of the following types of pulse:

  1. Complete. This means that the blood circulation in the arteries sufficient.
  2. Empty. This pulse occurs when a small volume of blood ejected by the heart in systole. The reasons for this condition can be a cardiac disease (heart failure, arrhythmia with too high heart rate) or decrease in blood volume in the body (blood loss, dehydration).

The value of the pulse

This figure combines the filling and voltage pulse. It depends primarily on the expansion of the arteries during contraction of the heart and falling it in the relaxation of the myocardium. Largest of the following types of pulse: what's the pulse

  1. Large (high). It occurs in a situation when there is an increase in ejection fraction and the tone of the arterial wall is reduced. The magnitude of the pressure in systole and diastole are different (for one cycle of the heart it increases abruptly and then decreases significantly). The reasons leading to the emergence of a large pulse may be aortic insufficiency, thyrotoxicosis, fever.
  2. Low heart rate. Blood in the bloodstream is thrown a bit, the tone of the arterial walls is high, the pressure fluctuations in...

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Alin Trodden - author of the article, editor
"Hi, I'm Alin Trodden. I write texts, read books, and look for impressions. And I'm not bad at telling you about it. I am always happy to participate in interesting projects."

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