People in their relation to HIV infection can be divided into two groups: those who do not consider HIV a problem, continuing a normal way of life, and those who are too excited for its safety, and is influenced by the flow of information emanating from the media and other sources. As one group, and the second is not quite correct, because the infection is today well studied, and experts can tell where potential risk of infection and where it is not. You should understand, how it is transmitted and how HIV is transmitted, to protect yourself from possible problems and not to bother their nerves once again.
In the body of a patient who is infected with HIV, the virus, the number of which is enough to infect another person, is breast milk, vaginal secretions, in semen and in blood. It is through these paths can get into the body of a healthy person with HIV infection. How is the virus spread through sweat, saliva, urine, feces? No way. Modes of transmission there are only three: sexual, vertical and parenteral transmission.
HIV belongs to the group of unstable virus and can be lost under the direct influence of ether, acetone or alcohol. The virus located on the surface of healthy skin, is degraded by bacterial action and protective enzymes. He's also not inclined to tolerate high temperatures and dies, being about 30 minutes at 57 degrees Celsius or in one-minute boiling.
The Difficulty in creating drugs and vaccines against HIV is that the virus is constantly changing.
Primary body reacts to the virus invasion by producing antibodies. The period that passes from infection until the moment when it begins active production of antibodies and can last from three weeks to three months. In some cases, antibodies appear only after six months after infection. This period was called “the seroconversion window period”.
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Latent or asymptomatic period may last from several months to 15 years. The disease at this stage is not manifested in any way. The infectious process develops after an asymptomatic period. The first sign that the disease progresses, – enlarged lymph nodes. After developing AIDS. The main symptoms of this period are: frequent or constant headache, unmotivated diarrhea, loss of appetite, drowsiness, malaise, fatigue, loss of body weight. At a late stage of the tumor appear and concomitant infections, the cure that is extremely difficult.
The Disease is associated with loss of immunity and threat to human life, so it is important to know how HIV is transmitted. Symptoms that may appear after a few years, it's hard to overcome and return to a normal lifestyle.
To make an accurate diagnosis and to determine the presence of virus in the body not only by their appearance. Here it is necessary to conduct a study of the blood, which will indicate the presence of viral load and antibodies to HIV. These services include HIV tests, ELISA (ELISA), polymerase chain reaction, various rapid tests. With the help of this kind of research can establish the presence of virus in the blood and the degree of its development.
To Do a test at any health organization. Pre-need counseling. In the case of a positive result infected should be provided primarily emotional and psychological support and information on how to lead future life. If the result is negative, then you need to spend with a person the conversation about how HIV is transmitted in the home. This will protect it from infection.
This question should interest anyone who cares about their health. Transmission of HIV is only possible in three ways, which are divided into natural and artificial. First – the sexual. The second-vertical. Its essence lies in the fact that the virus is transmitted directly from mother to child at birth (or fetal). This is a natural way.
A Third way, which is usually attributed to artificial - parenteral. In the latter case, infection can occur through blood transfusion, transplantation of organs or tissues, carrying out intravenous injections with unsterilized instruments. The main condition of infection is the presence of the virus in one and its absence from another person.
To Infect a person may be trapped in the body 1/10000 of a milliliter of blood, which is not visible to the human eye. Incredibly small size of the virus allow to accommodate 100 thousand particles on the line with a length of only 1 cm. It is also dangerous HIV is. How is the virus spread through blood, you can imagine based on the fact that if the blood of a healthy person gets even the slightest of the blood is infected, then the probability of infection is close to 100 percent. This can happen via donation, with overflow untested donated blood.
HIV can be transferred via unprocessed properway medical or cosmetic items, if they're already used to the infected person. Most often, these situations occur when the piercing of ears, tattooing, piercing when in non-specialized stores. The remnants of the blood can be invisible and remain even after washing with water. The tools must be treated with special agents or alcohol.
After the HIV epidemic began to spread, the Ministry of health strictly controls the work of the medical staff. This applies to organ donation, sterilization of medical instruments, General staff work. Therefore, the mechanism of transmission of HIV infection has been thoroughly studied, therefore, in medical institutions, the risk of contamination is minimized.
The Risk of infection with the virus is great among injecting drug users through contaminated blood, shared needles, syringes, filters and other devices for use of the drug.
Speaking about how HIV is transmitted and AIDS, not to mention the most common way – the sexual. The virus in the body of an infected person is in a large quantity in vaginal secretion and seminal fluid. Any heterosexual unprotected sexual intercourse can lead to infection and hearth thus acts on the mucosa of the genital organs. The fact that in the mucosa during sexual intercourse to form pinholes through which may freely penetrate the virus and get out into the circulatory system, other organs and tissues. The possibility of virus infection increases with the conduct chaotic sexual life, frequent change of sexual partners when not using condoms, as well as the introduction in sexual contact with a partner who systematically use drugs.
Infections that are transmitted sexually, today there are about 30. Many of them contribute to the development of various inflammatory diseases, which can also cause HIV infection. The majority of infections accompanied by inflammation and damage to the mucosa of the genital organs, which also promotes easy penetration of HIV into the body. Threat for infection and sexual intercourse during menstruation. The concentration of virus is much higher rate in semen than in vaginal discharge. Therefore, the probability of transmission from female to male is lower than from male to female.
Unprotected Homosexual contacts are even more dangerous. Due to the fact that the rectal mucosa no fixtures for sexual intercourse, the risk of traumatic injuries in this area exceeds the potential damage to the vagina. Infection through the anal passage more real due to the fact that he is abundantly supplied with blood. By the way, you can become infected through oral sex, though here the likelihood is not as high as in the previous cases.
Thus, when any sexual contact organism can penetrate HIV infection. How is the virus spread and what are the ways to avoid infection? Simply organize sexual life and the use of safety funds.
A few years ago this method of infection was very common, and an infected mother could not hope for a birth of a healthy child. Cases of exclusion have been, but rarely. The development of modern medicine today has achieved positive results in reducing the risk of infection from mother to child. Modes of transmission of HIV from mother to fetus or child in the following: through breast milk during breastfeeding, during birth or even during pregnancy. To discover at what point infection occurs, it is extremely difficult, so patients need to pregnant as early as possible to register and monitor the health of your future baby.
Although the risk of HIV infection in the domestic environment is low, but still it is. The most common is the transmission of infection through sharps. The question of how HIV is transmitted in everyday life, is troublesome to many, especially those who are under the same roof living with an infected person.
The Virus can be transmitted through personal care items (for example, through the razor blades). It is worth remembering that it is impossible to get infected through the shared use of the bathroom, as the virus is not transmitted by urine and faeces, while swimming in the pool, using common utensils and other household items.
Contamination in the home often occurs in an artificial way, through the damaged skin. If, for example, blood or mucus patient got into the body of a healthy person, it is possible to speak about the infection.
The Virus is not transmitted through the air (airborne), turn food, water. Stay in a room with an infected person also does not threaten healthy. Use household items (dishes, Cutlery, towels, bath, pool, Laundry) does not assume any risk. The virus is not transmitted through shaking hands, kissing, while Smoking one cigarette, when you use one lipstick or telephone. Also HIV is not transmitted through insect bites or throughanimals.
HIV infection is acting destructively on the immune system, thereby reducing the body's resistance to various diseases. If in the first period of infection can occur imperceptibly, to Express itself outwardly, then at later stages the immune system is weakened to such an extent that the body becomes subject to any infectious diseases. To such diseases belong to those that rarely suffer from uninfected people are caused by pathogens inflammation of the lungs, neoplastic disease Kaposi's sarcoma.
When HIV-infected individuals begin to emerge infectious diseases, the cause of which lies in problems of the immune system is called AIDS.
No Matter which way HIV is transmitted, it is important that it is vitally dangerous to humans. In order not to face such a serious problem, it is necessary to conduct a correct way of life and adhere to doctor's recommendations.
Among all the methods of struggle against AIDS the most effective – HIV prevention. It includes: having only one sexual partner, avoid sex with drug addicts, prostitutes, and little-known people, the rejection of group contacts, the use of safety equipment. These items are extremely important, because HIV is transmitted most often it is sexually transmitted through unprotected sex.
For your safety it is necessary to remember that it is not necessary to use other people's personal hygiene items (medical tools, toothbrushes, razors, or razors). Everyone has the right to insist that in the office of a cosmetologist, gynecologist, dentist and other specialists served them disposable new tools.
The health Sector should regularly carry out preventive measures against AIDS. These include: promotion of protected sex, a thorough examination of pregnant women, screening of blood donors and individuals at risk, control the birth of children, the failure of infected women to breastfeed their babies.
Prevention in health facilities involves the use of only disposable instruments for the treatment of HIV patients, careful hand washing after handling an infected patient. It is also necessary to disinfect if contaminated, the bed, the environment or household items allocation and secrets of the patient. Be sure to remember that it is better to prevent a problem than to solve it, and in this case - than to live with it.
In this case, as in many others, by the time it goes for days. The sooner a problem is detected, the more likely the patient is to regain a normal way of life. HIV treatment is aimed mostly to delay the development and progression of the virus so that it does not become a more serious disease-AIDS. The infected person immediately assign complex treatment, which includes drugs that prevent the development of opportunistic infections, and medications that impact the virus directly, preventing its development and reproduction.
It is Difficult to live with a disease such as HIV infection. How is how to develop how to protect themselves – the answers to these questions everyone should know, because it is unlikely that the patient will be able to lead a normal lifestyle, especially if he finds out about the problem after only a few years after infection. It is therefore important to monitor their behavior and protect their health, because it is the most precious thing we have, and it is, unfortunately or fortunately, can not be bought for money.
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