Muscle dystonia: causes, symptoms and treatments


2018-03-17 14:20:25




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Muscular dystonia, the uncontrolled contraction or relaxation of muscle tissue, which is most often seen in infants. Sometimes the disease is diagnosed in adult patients. As a result of such a pathological condition a person has to take a forced situation. This syndrome often affects the limbs.

General description of the disease

Symptoms of muscular dystonia

According to ICD-10 muscle dystonia has code G24. The norm of an arbitrary contractions of the muscles should not be. If the child is carried without problems and has no developmental disabilities, it can be observed hypertonicity, which takes place in a few months. Preterm babies manifested muscle weakness - hypotonia.

The presence of dystonia in a child soft tissue developing incorrectly. This results in the atrophy of muscles. In addition, he appeared uncomfortable symptoms, pain. An even greater danger to the baby occurs if the disease process extends to the respiratory muscles.


Muscle dystonia is primary or secondary. The etiology of its occurrence is different. In the first case, is affected by hereditary factors, gene mutations, idiopathic reasons. Secondary dystonia develops due to a congenital neurological disorders, external factors. Causes of disease are as follows:

  1. Problems with the functionality of the nervous system.
  2. Birth injury or a complicated pregnancy in the mother, chronic fetal hypoxia.
  3. Receiving certain types of drugs.
  4. Hereditary degenerative pathology of the nervous system.
  5. Focal damage to the blood vessels of the brain.
  6. The Impact of toxic substances on the body.
  7. Malignant or benign brain tumor.
  8. Infectious disease.
  9. Diseases of the heart and blood vessels.

The Reasons for the development of muscular dystonia may be more. Their accurate determination requires a careful diagnosis.


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Stage of development

the Diagnosis of muscular dystonia

The Pathology develops gradually. In this way it goes through several stages:

  • First. Symptoms still does not appear, however, the nerve damage is already present.
  • The Second. The child has disturbed sleep, he becomes irritable. Arms and legs toddler are constantly in a bent state.
  • Third. Physical activity requires the child considerable effort. There is pain syndrome, which persists even at rest.
  • Fourth. The lag in physical development can be seen by the naked eye.
  • Fifth. The child has a significantly worse motor abilities. Pathological changes in the muscles at this stage is not always reversible.

Muscle dystonia requires a comprehensive approach in the treatment, therefore, to delay a visit to the doctor is not necessary.


Muscle dystonia in children

Symptoms of muscular dystonia in children and adults are somewhat different. It is possible to allocate the following manifestations:

  1. Breast children there is twitching of the arms and legs, and this condition does not depend on what they do. Characteristic of this disease is the long-term presence poses of the embryo after birth.
  2. Children 2 years of age is manifested violation of the reversal of the hands, feet, torso. The child walks on tiptoes. It is difficult to hold any toys or objects. If not promptly begin therapy, the child will lose the skill of walking, and cannot care for themselves in the future.
  3. Muscular dystonia in adults manifests itself in convulsions, stiffness of the affected groups of muscles, twisting of the neck and its bias. The patient is deteriorating handwriting, it often flickers. Muscle is constantly present pain, mandibular movement is involuntary. Also changes the voice and speech.

Incorrect treatment of muscular dystonia of infants is fraught with the violation of his physical and mental development. In adults the condition is also not improving. Therefore, to address to the doctor is necessary when the first symptoms of the disease.

Types of disease

Before you begin treatment, it is necessary to consider the types of muscle dystonias. To classify the pathology, you can:

Factors of classification Characteristic pathology
For the cause
  • Primary. Here the main causes are genetic factors.
  • Secondary. It is caused by external factors and is more frequently diagnosed in adult patients
  • Focal dystonia. In this type of pathology affects a small fragment of muscle in one specific location.
  • Segmental. There is a violation of functionality is distributed on several adjacent muscles.
  • Hemidystonia. Soft tissues cease to function normally on one side of the body.
  • Multifocal. The defeat exposed several groups of muscles, which are located in different parts of the body.
  • Generalized. This is the most severe form of the syndrome of a muscular dystonia. It spreads all over the body
Depending on the severity
  • Hypotonia.
  • Hypertonicity
Age of patient
  • Infant.
  • Children.
  • Junior.
  • Youth.
  • Pathology that occurs in the elderly

After you have determined the causes, the development of a syndrome of a muscular dystonia, as well as the form of development, you can begin to treat the disease.


Presents the disease can be confused with other disorders, so the diagnosis must be differential and as accurate as possible. To diagnose "muscle dystonia", you must undergo a thorough examination, including:

  1. Neurological examination in which a specialist determines the presence of characteristic disease poses.
  2. Medical history about the pregnancy and birth.
  3. Laboratory tests that show how good is the exchange of copper in the body.
  4. Electroencephalography, which revealed the presence of functional or organic lesions of the brain.
  5. CT scan and MRI. This diagnosis is the most informative and allows you to identify the reason for the development of dystonia.
  6. Neurosonography.
  7. Together.
  8. Doppler blood vessels.

The Patient is required to consult several specialists: therapist, neurologist. If there is muscle dystonia in infants, it is necessary to survey neonatologists.

Conventional treatment

Treatment of muscular dystonia medical supplies

Therapy must be comprehensive. In addition to drugs that improve the functionality of the nervous system, the patient also appointed physiotherapy, massage courses. In severe cases, surgical intervention is required. As for medicines, the patient may be prescribed are:

  1. Preparations for adjustment of neurotransmitter GABA: "Baclofen", "Diazepam".
  2. Dopaminergic means "Levado", "Tetrabenazine".
  3. Anticholinergics: "Trihexyphenidyl".

In recent years for the treatment of muscular dystonia used injections of botulinum toxin. In small doses it helps to prevent spasm. However, to completely get rid of the pathology it will not help, as it only lasts for a few months. A positive effect is observed only after 2-3 days after initiation of therapy.

The Total course of therapy lasts about 1-2 months. Independently use any drugs, especially for babies, is not recommended.

Surgery involves the implantation in certain areas of the brain of tiny electrodes. They control muscle movements. This type of intervention is assigned only if the treatment does not give positive effect.


Massage muscular dystonia

They also have a positive effect, but use them in combination with medication. Excellent help to remove the spasm of the baths on the basis of lavender oil or extract of pine needles. They are especially useful for babies, as it soothes the nervous system.

Among the most effective physiotherapy can be identified such:

  1. Mud.
  2. Thermal and water procedures.
  3. Ultrasound therapy.
  4. Electrophoresis with the use of drugs.
  5. Decenia the d'arsonval.

Can be used and alternative methods: acupuncture. Children often appoint experts kinesiotherapy course. It must prescribe only the neurologist. Before that...

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Alin Trodden - author of the article, editor
"Hi, I'm Alin Trodden. I write texts, read books, and look for impressions. And I'm not bad at telling you about it. I am always happy to participate in interesting projects."

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