What is the epidermis? The structure of the epidermis

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2018-03-17 14:31:06

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The External covering of the body has a quite complex structure. The skin is an organ that consists of two layers. It performs several important functions: exchange, teploreguliruth, receptor, protective. Many people wonder what is the epidermis, but they forget the second component of the skin-the dermis.

Structure of external cover of the body

What is the epidermisThe skin Consists of two layers-epidermis and dermis. The upper epithelial layer is separated from lower rough wavy line. Its appearance is caused by the presence on the surface of the skin special appendages – the papillae. The top layer is flat keratinized stratified epithelium. It has no blood vessels, and the power to it comes from the dermis.

Having dealt with what is the epidermis, finding out where it is located, many are becoming interested in its structure. It consists of cells, different in form and structure. They reflect certain phases of their lives. The thickness of the epidermis, depending on its location can be from 0.07 mm to 1.4 mm. the thickest layer is on the soles of the feet, palms. And the thinnest skin (the top layer) is located in the pubic area, forearm, ears and belly.

Structure of the top cover of the dead

The Epidermis consists of 5 separate layers. Its main component is called the keratinocyte. But the structure of the epidermis is harder than it might seem at first glance. Experts identify these layers:

  • Basal (paradiseby);
  • Lipovatiy;
  • Sernity;
  • Blestyashie;
  • Rogovoy.

Each of them performs specific functions and has its structure.

It is Important to know that the cells of the epidermis are in a constant state of updates. The layers are in the process of reproduction, displacement, keratinization and exfoliation. Depending on the specific area of the body the process of epidermis regeneration can take anywhere from 20 to 30 days.

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Horny layer

the Structure of the epidermis

The Upper part of the epidermis consists of cells that are sufficiently close to each other. Located in the stratum corneum are epidermal components of the skin barrier & ndash; they are called stratum corneum. These epidermal cells have lost cell organelles and filled with keratin.

Due to this, these components of the Horny layer can protect underneath tissues from mechanical damage, temperature fluctuations, drying out and penetration of bacteria. Horny scales are divided into two types. They may be loose or dense filling of the keratin fibrils. On the surface, there is one of them. And the first located closer to the granular layer. The structure remains from those earlier in these cellular organelles. These scales are often called T-shaped cells.

This top layer of the epidermis is the dermal barrier and consists of several layers of dead cells, which are impregnated with lipids. By the way, these substances are the main custodians of moisture in the skin.

Shiny layer

Top layer of the epidermisThis part of the epidermis is not always expressed. It is called aleinikovas layer. If it can be detected, then it looks like thin, light, bright and homogeneous strip. Layer got the name only because of their appearance. Component is a substance called eleidin. It is a product-a basis for further keratinization of the cells. Find it, usually only in the skin of the soles and palms. It consists of anuclear flattened cells.

Granular layer

the cells of the epidermisThose who understand, what is the epidermis, found out where he is, and remember its thickness, understand that each of its components is negligible. Thus, a granular layer consisting of only 1-2 rows of cells in those areas where a thin epidermis. But it may also consist of 10 rows of cells in areas where the skin is denser. They are diamond-shaped, elongated, elongated and closely pressed against each other. In this layer the cells have lost their ability to divide. In their cytoplasm there are two types of granules: plate and keratogialin. They are located so that the long axis of each diamond-shaped cells parallel running grooves or scallops.

Spiny cell

layers of the epidermis of the skinRegardless of the location of the area of the skin, the layer consists of 5-10 rows. Which cells have the shape of polygons. When viewed under the microscope you can see not only the epidermal layers of the skin, but also to see the cells themselves, a narrow strip of space between them and thin branches that intersect. Due to their presence the layer was named prickly.

Keratinocytes are connected in this part of the epidermis by desmosomes. They have a rather complicated structure: they look like 2 plates, and between them there are alternating 4 electron-transparent and 3 electron-dense layer. It desmosomes support the internal structure of cells, they are the guarantee of strong intercellular connections. They also serve as a mounting location for the latters. It should be noted that the epidermis of the person is arranged so that in the upper parts of the spinous layer, the number of desmosomes is reduced.

The structure of the cells is reminiscent of components of the basal division. However, they are different. Spiny cells are connected by a significant number of desmosomes and bundles of the latters they have thicker.

Basal cell

This layer is most remote from the surface of the skin. But he gives in full measure the opportunity to understand what the epidermis. Is the last layer to the basal lamina, which limits it from other tissues. Cells there are in one row. The layer which they form, also called embryonic. It contains several types of cells. There are keratinocytes, melanocytes, lymphocytes, basophils tissue. Also, the layer includes the cells of Grinstein and Merkel.

human EpidermisCarnosity in this layer look like cylinders, which stand upright. They distinguish 2 types: smooth and subcostal surface. The first of them share, due to which there is a change of cells. Second perform the backup function. But any damage to the skin they began to share.

To Fully understand and to understand how the structure of the epidermis is possible, if you know what structure the components of the basophilic layer is slightly different. And in addition to the organelles, and the nucleus, which tend to have all other cells, they are specific structure – monofilament. Also, there are special inclusions called granules of melanin.

We should also say that the melanocytes-these are special cells capable of producing melanin. This substance protects from the damaging effect of UV radiation. In the basal layer is of the order of 10-25% of cells. In appearance they resemble a sea urchin and are located between the keratinocytes. Their long processes they are capable of transporting the melanin inside the cells by phagocytosis.

Knowing all this information about the structure, characteristics of the top layer of the skin, you can imagine what is the epidermis, how it looks and what is needed.

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BE: https://tostpost.com/be/zdaro-e/17937-shto-takoe-ep-derm-s-budynak-ep-derm-su.html

DE: https://tostpost.com/de/gesundheit/17949-was-ist-die-epidermis-die-struktur-der-epidermis.html

ES: https://tostpost.com/es/la-salud/17958-qu-es-la-epidermis-la-estructura-de-la-epidermis.html

HI: https://tostpost.com/hi/health/9997-what-is-the-epidermis-the-structure-of-the-epidermis.html

JA: https://tostpost.com/ja/health/9995-what-is-the-epidermis-the-structure-of-the-epidermis.html

KK: https://tostpost.com/kk/densauly/17937-b-l-epidermis-epidermis-rylysy.html

PL: https://tostpost.com/pl/zdrowie/17914-co-to-jest-nask-rek-budowa-nask-rka.html

PT: https://tostpost.com/pt/sa-de/17907-o-que-a-epiderme-a-estrutura-da-epiderme.html

TR: https://tostpost.com/tr/sa-l-k/17943-nedir-epidermis-yap-epidermis.html

UK: https://tostpost.com/uk/zdorov-ya/17927-scho-take-ep-derm-s-budova-ep-derm-su.html

ZH: https://tostpost.com/zh/health/10827-what-is-the-epidermis-the-structure-of-the-epidermis.html






Alin Trodden - author of the article, editor
"Hi, I'm Alin Trodden. I write texts, read books, and look for impressions. And I'm not bad at telling you about it. I am always happy to participate in interesting projects."

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