Types of family upbringing and methods of raising a child. Family upbringing and family pedagogy


2020-09-27 12:00:04




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Raising a child is not such an easy task as it may seem at first glance. There are different types and styles of family upbringing. How to understand them? What methods of family education to choose? We'll look for answers together.

Family education and family pedagogy, depending on how parents perceive and control the child emotionally, distinguish the following styles of influence:

  • Authoritative
  • Authoritarian
  • Liberal
  • Indifferent.

Reputable and authoritarian styles

In authoritative upbringing, mother and father emotionally warm to children, but control over them is quite high. Parents recognize and encourage the child's independence. This style is characterized by a willingness as the baby grows up to revise the requirements and rules for him.

Authoritarian style is expressed by a low level of emotional perception of children and a high level of control. Communication of such parents with the child is more like a dictate when all requests are made in the form of orders, and requirements, prohibitions and rules under any pretext do not change.

Liberal and indifferent styles

In a family where children are warmly received emotionally and control over them is low (up to forgiveness and permissiveness), there is a liberal style of education. Requirements and rules at the same time almost no, and the level of leadership leaves much to be desired.

In an indifferent style, parents have very little participation in the upbringing, the child is perceived emotionally cold, his needs and interests are simply ignored. There is virtually no control on the part of the father and mother.


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Of course, each of these styles of exposure affects the child in a certain way. But family education types play a dominant role in the formation of personality. Let's take a closer look at them.

Harmonious type

The types of family upbringing of the child are divided into harmonious and disharmonious. The first means:

  • Mutual emotional support;
  • Maximizing the needs of all family members, both adults and children;
  • Recognition of the fact that a child is a person and can choose his own path of development;
  • Encouraging children's self-reliance.

In addition, in difficult situations, mutual respect is shown and equal rights of parents and the child to make decisions are active. The system of requirements for a child here is always justified by his age and personality. Parental control is systematic, gradually a small member of the family gets used to self-control. Encouragement and punishment are always deserved and reasonable. Parents have consistency and consistency in matters of education, but at the same time everyone retains the right to their own view of the situation. The mother or father can make changes to the parenting system according to the age of the children.

Disharmonious types of family upbringing

They are very diverse, but there are common traits that are different in each family in this category. First of all, disharmonious types of family upbringing and family relationships are characterized by low emotional level of acceptance of the child and even the possibility of emotional rejection. Of course, there is no reciprocity in this regard. Parents are practically divided and do not have a common opinion on education. In relationships with children, they are often inconsistent and contradictory.

Disharmonious types of family upbringing are characterized by the fact that in different areas of life parents limit the child, often unjustified. As a part of the requirements, there may be two polar provisions: either they are overstated or virtually non-existent. In the latter case, permissiveness reigns. Parental control is not where it is needed and it is not enough. Punishments are undeserved and too frequent or, conversely, are absent.

Disharmonious types of family upbringing of the child differ in the fact that in everyday communication with a daughter or son there is an increased conflict. Children's needs are either inadequate or over-reliance on. These types are most common:

  • Hypoprotection,
  • Hyperprotection,
  • Conflicting upbringing,
  • Education by the type of increased moral responsibility,
  • Hypersocializing upbringing,
  • Child abuse,
  • Cult of disease.

Let's take a closer look at these types of family upbringing and child-parent relationships.

Hypoprotection and hyperprotection

These are two polar options when caring, attention, control, interest in the child and his needs are either insufficient (hypoprotection), or too much (hyperprotection).

Controversial type

It assumes that parents have different views on education, which they bring to life. The impact on the child varies from time to time depending on the age of child, but the educational strategies are mutually exclusive and incompatible.

Increased moral responsibility

Tochildren are subject to high demands, often age-appropriate and individual.

Hypersocial education

In this case, the first place is put forward successes, achievements of the child, attitude to him peers, the principle of duty, responsibility, responsibilities. All this is done without taking into account the individual qualities and age of children.


With this type of education, punishment is heavier than misconduct, and there is no incentive.

Cult of disease

The child is treated as weak, sick, helpless, creating a special atmosphere around him. This leads to the development of selfishness and a sense of exclusivity.

In addition to styles and types, there are methods of family education. They will be discussed below.

How to influence children

Types of family upbringing and family relationships involve the following ways of influence: love, trust, personal example, showing, discussion, empathy, errand, control, exaltation of personality, humor, praise or encouragement, punishment, tradition, empathy.

Parents raise their children not only with words and beliefs, but, first of all, by personal example. Therefore, it is important to properly organize the family life, personal and social behavior of the mother and father. Mom and dad won't have a positive effect on the child if they don't want to get better. Family parenting methods work only when parents are engaged in self-education.

Impact on young children

Family education of preschoolers should be organized so that the requirements for the child were agreed between the parents. This will help children behave properly, teach them how to manage their emotions and actions. It is necessary to talk about the requirements of the child in the form of wishes, request or advice, as the orderly tone will cause a negative reaction.

In any team, traditions are a reflection of the nature of communication and the level of upbringing. The same goes for the family. Emerging customs and traditions have a beneficial effect on children. It also brings the parents and the child together. In preparation for the holidays, kids join the everyday side of life. They help to clean and decorate the house, take part in cooking and serving the table, prepare gifts and postcards for relatives.

The main components of the family

Family upbringing of preschoolers is a little different from the upbringing of children of other ages. The family, in which harmony reigns, is a protection, a support for the child, thanks to this there is confidence and sense of need in this world, which gives birth to mental comfort. Emotional compatibility of all members creates the right tone in communication, for example, it is manifested when a joke of the mother or father is able to prevent the impending conflict, defuse tension. Hence the development of a child's sense of humor, which will allow him to be self-critical, to be able to laugh at himself and his behavior, to gain resilience in life situations, and not to be touchy and teary.

Best Relationship Model

Family upbringing and family pedagogy are aimed at creating conditions under which the child forms a model of relationships. According to it, he will build his whole life further, will create a family, raise children and grandchildren. What should this model be like? Family education takes place in an atmosphere of benevolence, warmth, happiness and love, and the children's features are necessarily taken into account. Parents strive to develop the abilities and best qualities of the child, accepting him as he is. The requirements for children are based on mutual respect. Parenting is based on the positive qualities of the child, not on the negative. Otherwise, the baby will buy a bunch of complexes.

In conclusion

Thus, thinking about the correctness of raising a child, look first at yourself from the outside. After all, children copy their parents. Aim to become better, and the child will also begin to change. Harmony to your family!

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