Economically active population is represented by citizens who offer their labour for a certain period. According to the methodology of the UN in this category include entrepreneurs, employees and persons who have in due time work, but wish to receive it. In other words, in this category of the population includes employed and unemployed citizens.
Employment provides people to meet the public and their needs, which do not contradict the current legislation and bring mostly labor income.
Economically active population in terms of employed persons includes persons age 16 years, regardless of gender, which in the analyzed period:
- worked on a full or part-time for receiving certain compensation;
- were not at work due to illness, vacation, days off, etc.;
- perform free work in family enterprises.
In many international standards over the concept of “economically active population" can be meet following the division of the term:
- a usually active population – applied to a long period of time (over a year);
- active population in the current period – applies to a short period of time (week or day).
The Economically inactive population is represented by citizens of a certain age that are not included for some reason in labor force, employed and unemployed is presented. This type can include the following categories:
- cadets, students (full-time education), this category includes graduate students, doctoral students, also for stationary training;
- receiving pensions of various types;
- persons who are on disability pensions from any of the groups;
- persons who are on leave to care for sick relatives or children;
- individuals who may not work irrespective of the main source of their earning.
Among the main causes of unemployment stand out are:
- staff reduction or liquidation of the organization;
- the end of the period of seasonal work or contract;
- the resignation;
- reaching the age for retirement;
- other personal reasons.
Economically active population can be replenished from a number of individuals listed above, as students once graduate, in Housewives children grow up, and people not wanting to work, sometimes still the need arises.
An Important part of information that characterizes the labour resources are the information about the economically inactive population, as the transition of the population from active to inactive, and Vice versa, is in constant motion.
In its terminology the notion of “economically active population" finds its use for a long time. In Russia this term can be found only in the scientific literature. However, in practice, the application of this concept began with the transition by the state statistics Committee of the Russian Federation on international standards (1992). In this period were regularly carried out a sample survey among the population on the issue of employment. At the same time began the publication in the official collections of numbers identified such a category of citizens.
Economically active population of Russia in June 2012 amounted to 76.4 million people, and statistics show a steady increase. From total of 72.7 million people, or 94,5% are working, and the rest-unemployed. In comparison with may of current year the number of employed people increased of (0.2%), but the number of unemployed increased more (1.3 percent).
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