Not an easy biography of Khodorkovsky Mikhail Borisovich is an example of the unpredictability of life, it is full of UPS and downs, dizzying successes and fatal failures. Today, the name Khodorkovsky is surrounded by a lot of rumors, myths and speculation, what has been his fate?
Khodorkovsky (biography, parents, who in the beginning of life was the most common) was born on 26 June 1963 in Moscow, into a family of engineers plant «Calibre». His father has long held the position of chief technologist, Mama was an engineer-technologist. The family was not very wealthy, father was a former street kid, a Jew, all his life he worked diligently. Mom had ancestors-noblemen, but it was not the subject of discussion in the house. Biography of Khodorkovsky, whose family belonged to the representatives of the technical intelligentsia, in the best sense of the word, started out very typical for the Soviet Union. The first four years of his life Michael lived in a communal apartment, then the family moved to a separate.
Misha's childhood was very serious, even in his kindergarten nicknamed “Director”, the school firmly established him the nickname “theoretical”. He was a good student, a great ability demonstrated in mathematics and chemistry. He went to school, studied chemistry, at home with their parents solve puzzles on the subject and made various experiments. In addition to his studies, Michael also studied karate and Sambo, a lot of reading.
Mikhail Khodorkovsky, the biography whose childhood is connected with chemistry in 1980 supplied in the Chemical-technological Institute. Mendeleev. It was not the most brilliant University to study with the talented young man was easy. In parallel, he engaged in social work: actively involved in the life of the young Communist League, headed the construction team. He found work in Siberia, he led all negotiations with the Directors of enterprises, and summer students has earned a lot of money. His squad in the fourth year was the best in the harvest. In 1985, Khodorkovsky graduated high school with honors and has the ability to choose the place of distribution. He wanted to work at a private enterprise in Siberia and to attend graduate school, but did not work. There are several versions of why the plans weren't carried out. Say that was prevented by the nationality recorded on the passport of father Michael, another version says that the choice of a graduate influenced by the speech of the rector, who spoke about the futility of the pursuit of science at the present stage.
Quite a long time he began to classification of goods in international trade, but recently it has undergone serious development. Now she performs several important functions that help the work of the customs, as well as the functioning not only ...
Later, Michael enrolled in the Institute of national economy named after Plekhanov on Finance (graduated in 1988).
Work history Khodorkovsky Mikhail Borisovich began in childhood. While in high school, he was sweeping the streets, cut the bread in a bakery, worked as an assistant carpenter — so the boy was able to earn pocket money and reagents for chemical experiments. While studying at the Institute, he constantly worked as a carpenter in the building society “the benchmark”. He always had the desire to make money, and he has found a way to do it.
After graduation biography of Khodorkovsky, whose nationality was listed as the father of “Jew”, there was not so little as he had dreamed, due to the fact that he was unable to get into a secret Institute, engaged in defense research. So Michael works for a short time released by the Deputy Secretary of the Komsomol of the University, and later became Deputy Secretary of the Komsomol district Committee. At that time, a wave of commercialization of everything, including public organizations, they were given little economic freedom. This took advantage of Khodorkovsky together with Platon Lebedev and Sergey panahovym. It creates youth initiative Fund that allows you to profit from youth activities. Later based on this Foundation grew up the Center of scientific-technical creativity of youth. The establishment of the center was dictated by the spirit of the time, Khodorkovsky listened intently to the surrounding developments and could feel the expected profit in this enterprise. The point was not to support youth projects, and that such centres were allowed to be self-sufficient to engage in commercial activities. And Michael was very active: he organized the import and sale of computers, sale of alcohol, created a workshop for the production of “cooked” jeans. All this has brought a lot of profit. But Khodorkovsky only increased the scale, he managed to create a system of cash-other organizations that could not carry out payments. At this time he makes his first really big money. He became the “inventor” many financial schemes that would later be applied to numerous followers.
At this time, Khodorkovsky is cluttered with large, useful relationships that help him reach a new level.
In 1989, Khodorkovsky with companions creates a commercial Bank and then banking Association, abbreviated MENATEP. He stands at the head of the company, Nevzlin andGolubovich become deputies, Oaks operates subsidiary banks. The Bank obtains a state license one of the first in the country and starts selling the currency, and then issues its own stocks, which are actively advertised on TV. Shareholders did not wait for the promised huge dividends. It has serviced many large government agencies that created a huge turnover.
In the years of privatization MENATEP actively involved in buying property in the country. Through the manipulation of mortgage auction, the Bank becomes the owner of 90% shares of the second largest oil company in the country — Yukos. Since then, Khodorkovsky more interested to be a banker, he dips into a new industry.
Biography of Khodorkovsky makes a new twist, he is interested in another business. Oil has created enormous opportunities for the implementation of various projects. But no sooner had he turned around, came the crisis of 1998, which undermined the stability of the Bank of Khodorkovsky and "put a stain" on Yukos, who did not want to pay dividends. Mikhail Borisovich quickly caught on able to align your business, although the Bank had to be abandoned. After the default, he is engaged in establishing the production and export of oil, restructures the company, increases the transparency of revenues and expenditures, which returns the confidence of investors. By 2003, Yukos shares had doubled in price. The company will use various methods “tax”, to boost the profitability of the business. In 2003, Forbes estimated a condition of Khodorkovsky's $ 8 billion, calling the richest citizen of the year.
Khodorkovsky twice attempts to create a unified campaign YUKSI (together with "Sibneft" Abramovich). He had thought out a scheme that would allow him to insure your business and become the richest man in the world, but it interfered with law enforcement, which destroyed hopes.
Biography of Khodorkovsky has always been connected not only with jobs but also with public and political sphere. In 1990–91 years he and Nevzlin are the advisers of the Prime Minister Silayev, whom she had known since the days of Centers of scientific and technical creativity of youth. In 1993, Michael became the Chairman of Investment Fund of assistance to the TEP. In subsequent years, he is a member of many committees and councils of different levels, up to the government. Since 1999 a large part of the company's capital is spent on image-making and lobbying in the government. Khodorkovsky also involved in charity work — supports a boarding school for orphans. He financed the election campaign of the parties of the Communist party and Yabloko in the districts where there are large oil deposits. In 2003, he sponsored the election from four parties.
In 2002, Khodorkovsky creates a Fund “Open Russia”, the Board of Directors that included D. Rothschild and Henry Kissinger. By 2004 there were more than 50 branches of the organization, which is engaged in the modernization of education, conducted the Internet in remote regions, working with young people. The Fund helped Khodorkovsky to promote your business and your Outlook.
In 2003, the biography of Khodorkovsky makes a sharp turn. In February, he is faced with Putin on the question of the legitimacy of the sale of “Rosneft”, it was the last drop, the Cup of patience of the authorities was exhausted. The government has long been a lot of questions to the activities of Yukos, he remembered “tax”, and opened a criminal case against Lebedev first, and then against Khodorkovsky. He did not want to leave the country, despite all the warnings of friends and remained, to support the arrested Lebedev, but on 25 October 2003 he was arrested on the way to Irkutsk.
In 2005, the court sentenced Lebedev and Khodorkovsky were sentenced to 8 years, but they pleaded not guilty and insisted on the political bias of the court. While there was a consequence and court, the media, the unfolding public relations campaign that accused Khodorkovsky of attempted oligarchic coup in the country. In the West and in opposition circles, on the contrary, said that the case has political background. The ECHR found the accused “prisoners of conscience”, although has not confirmed explicitly whether the case of the political component. The assets of Yukos were seized in reparation debt, but foreign assets to seize failed.
In 2006 we opened a new business about plunder of oil, which Khodorkovsky received a sentence of 14 years to serve which he had in the Chita region.
In conclusion, Khodorkovsky continued to fight for their rights, he has published several articles and statements in the Western press, four times went on hunger strike, he repeatedly sent to the detention center for violation of the prison regime. At this time the public did not give up attempts to defend Khodorkovsky — the following actions were held, letters were written, articles.
Biography of Khodorkovsky, family, children which became the main reason for the search exemption changed when he finally submitted a petition for clemency. In 2013 Putin at a press conference said that Khodorkovskycan pardon, if he asks for one. The petition, in essence, was an admission of guilt, but because Michael was very ill mother, he went for it. 20 Dec 2013 it was released, the lawyers hastily organized a trip Khodorkovsky in Berlin.
Biography of Khodorkovsky again makes a turn, after 10 years of imprisonment, he settles in Switzerland, receives a residence permit. The first time it bothers a lot of press. After the emigration there is a new Mikhail Khodorkovsky. Biography, wife, private life now, he said, will be important for him, and he will live out of politics. However, to refrain from political statements he fails after a few months he commented on the situation in Russia, criticizing the country's government. In March 2014, Khodorkovsky says he is ready to mediate in the conflict between Russia and Ukraine over Crimea. In September 2014 he “restart” “Open Russia”, experts regard this as the return of Mikhail Khodorkovsky in politics. Khodorkovsky often acts as an expert on the political situation in Russia in the Western media, he participates in public events. His speech at the festival in Paris in 2014 that he is ready to become President of Russia and do everything to create the country's civil society was perceived as a Declaration of intention.
The First marriage Khodorkovsky was imprisoned in his student days. First wife Helen in 1985 gave birth to Michael's son Paul. In 1991, Khodorkovsky is getting married for the second time. His second wife Inna bore him three children: a daughter and two twin sons. In 2009 Michael became a grandfather. Its current priorities after the release of the so designated Mikhail Khodorkovsky: family, wife, children. Photo of the entire family it is almost impossible to find as he carefully guards his privacy. But spent away from loved ones for 10 years and now trying to catch up.
Khodorkovsky, biography, family, photo the private life of the great interest of the media, and it's tiring. Nevertheless, he regularly gives interviews, appears at big events, his life continues.
Biography of Khodorkovsky, his wife and children which became the largest part, is currently in a calm phase. He establishes his life, satisfied with things, but increasingly, in an interview blurts out that he has a desire to change Russia. This gives the authorities a reason to think that he still has political ambitions. That is what many opposition members explain the appearance of charges Khodorkovsky in the murder of Vladimir Petukhov, mayor of Nefteyugansk, which is called “third Yukos case”.
Mikhail Borisovich said that he was not concerned about the next declaring him wanted by Russian authorities, he continues to comment on events in the country. However, Khodorkovsky family, children for whom very important, do not make sharp political statements.
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