The production of hydrogen

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2020-07-02 23:05:08

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One of the significant advantages of hydrogen power is the presence of multiple methods of hydrogen production. This contributes to improving energy security and reducing dependence on certain types of raw materials. The production of hydrogen can be carried out:

  1. Method steam reforming of methane and natural gas;
  2. Using coal gasification;
  3. Through the electrolysis of water;
  4. Way of pyrolysis;
  5. The method of partial oxidation;
  6. Biotechnological methods.

By far the most cheap and accessible way – this steam conversion. Experts predict its use will take place at the initial stage of introduction of the hydrogen economy. However, in the future will still need a transition to renewable energy sources because a significant reduction in greenhouse gas emissions is probably the main reason for the transition to hydrogen energy. As such, you can use solar energy or wind energy, which allows the electrolysis of water.

The Ability to focus the production of hydrogen in large enterprises involves lowering the costs of development, but at the same time need additional costs to transport hydrogen to a special petrol stations. As the option is considered the production of hydrogen on a small scale directly to hydrogen to AC.

Now the hydrogen is produced from many sources of raw materials. Let us consider the most popular of them.

Hydrocarbons

To date, nearly half of the production of hydrogen is by steam reforming of natural gas (methane). This process represents the mixing of methane with steam at a temperature of 700 − 1000°C under high pressure in the presence of a catalyst.

Coal Gasification

Coal Gasification is the oldest method of hydrogen production. The process is as follows: the coal is heated to a temperature of 800 -1300°C in the absence of oxygen. FutureGen project has developed a new hydrogen plant based on the production of the basic element in such a way. It is supposed to soon be built in the United States.

Biomass

From biomass hydrogen is extracted in two ways: biochemical and thermochemical. When the biochemical production of hydrogen is produced by various bacteria, for example, Rodobacter speriodes. Thermochemical method involves heating biomass to a temperature of 500 - 800°C (wood waste) in the absence of air. The result of this is the separation of H2, CO and CH4.

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Chemical reaction of water with metals

American University of Purdue, invented a way of producing hydrogen from water through the use of aluminium alloy. It involves the formation of pellets of an alloy of gallium with aluminum, which are then placed in a container of water. Produces a chemical reaction, which produces hydrogen.

Electrolysis of water carried out of the hydrogen generators, converting into electricity the heat from industrial plants or from the environment and decomposing the water.

The production of hydrogen from energy sources such as wind, sun, atomic energy is still only being researched by scientists. Studies show that these methods have the prospect of wide use in the future. Their introduction is planned in the next few years. Of course at first, the cost of hydrogen produced by such methods is high, but then the rate will gradually reach the optimum level.

At the moment, hydrogen is used in the manufacture of gasoline, ammonia, and without him the production of hydrogen peroxide.

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