A Laser printer is a type of computer printer in which to create an image using a laser beam. The image is created as an array of very small dots. The use of laser in this case allows a very clear detailed image, typographical, or photographic quality that matches offset printing, used for printing books and magazines.
Today, produced a huge number of models of laser printers. Not to get lost in this diversity, it is necessary to have clear guidelines. The main parameters of laser printers is the print speed, resolution (image clarity), printer control language, internal storage and format of the paper. As in laser printing devices use non-contact printing technology, they are very quiet, and many users find the absence of noise is an important criterion when buying the device for office use. Laser printers are simplex, i.e. they print on only one side of the paper, and duplex-print on both sides. They can print color images, but most of them are monochrome. Thus, the main parameters of laser printers also include parameters such as noise level, the possibility of duplex printing and the ability to print color images.
Laser printers are available in a wide range of speeds. The main parameters of laser printers include such indicators as speed in a one-sided images per minute and pages per minute. These velocities are equal for single-sided printers, and in bilateral on one sheet printed two images. As duplex, as a rule, is unilateral, the printer, capable to turn paper to other side, two-sided print speed in pages per minute is about half the speed of simplex printer.
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A Parameter that indicate manufacturers of printing devices, is the highest speed, which is able to provide the printing mechanism. When printing simple pages with minimal text or complex graphics most devices will allow you to achieve the performance claimed by the manufacturer however, a complex page with lots of text or complex graphics, so can load controller (processor forming the data in the image), processing will not allow the device to run at full speed. The consequence of this is that when printing complex pages actual print speeds may not exceed 10% of nominal.
The first color laser printers print each color required a separate pass through the printing mechanism. Most color devices use four colors, Magenta, cyan, black and yellow, and can print both in colour and black-and-white images. With color printing, they work with the speed of a quarter of the speed of printing in monochrome mode. There are color devices are creating a full colour image in 1 pass.
Laser printers usually are classified by speed. Personal printers work at a speed of about up to 20 pages per minute office or desktop printers are in the range 20-40 ppm, printers, workgroups – 40-60-, and large printing presses - up to 60 ppm and more. The speed of the fastest printers exceeds 200 pages/min.
If you evaluate the main parameters of laser printers, the resolution is an important indicator of their quality of work. The resolution corresponds to the number of individual dots it can print within a given region. Laser printers create an image by using an array of points, called ‘bitmap’. Modern laser printers reach a resolution of 1200 dots per square inch. As most devices have the same resolution horizontally and vertically, this measurement is usually shortened to “dpi” (t/d), which corresponds to the resolution in the horizontal and vertical axis. Some of the latest models of laser printers have a resolution of 38400х600 t/d or 23 040 000 dots per square inch. Obviously, the higher the number, the finer and more detailed image the printer can produce.
Manufacturers use and other technologies of image improvement. For example, the system ImageREt Hewlett-Packard changes the size and position of the points constituting the text or image that allows, for example, to place very small dots at the edge of the pixel, making the image clearer, with a smoothly contoured contour lines. In addition, it:
- use multilevel seal, which allows achieving a desired shade of a pixel the printer before mixing, using complex algorithms that vary the amount of toner of each color;
- applies adaptive protonirovanie using the multi-level print technology for smooth edges and uniform printing of large areas, increasing or decreasingfrequency digital halftones by reducing or increasing the distance between them;
- uses capture color – patented technology the deliberate overlapping of one color to another to improve picture quality in areas of transition;
- reduces halos – automatically removes one color from another region, reducing areas of overlap and making them less visible
- automatically performs a closed-loop color calibration by pre-printing the image on an electrostatic strip, and choosing the amount of toner which is necessary for reliable and sustainable communication of color.
Technology improves the basic parameters of laser printers are exclusive innovative HP technologies. At this time, developed several levels ImageREt
The Language used in the printing device, is a set of commands that it executes to format the data sent from the computer. These commands are built-in and interpreted by the printer. There are many languages manage: one specifically designed for laser printers and other previously used devices in a simple, interpreted by some devices for compatibility with old software.
Language management refers to the main parameters of laser printers, as most computer applications support only a part of the diversity of languages. The IBM mainframe and minicomputers support the languages created by IBM. Macintosh most applications use Adobe PostScript, the industry - standard language for describing complex pages.
Number of printers are divided into two categories. Distinguish languages page description (PDL) and languages ESC-sequences. First, as a rule, a more versatile and complex and allow you to print more complex pages and graphics, which is perfect for creating high-quality products such as presentation materials, technical manuals, catalogues, brochures etc. the Second is to use software packages that produce complex, highly formatted output, including in the programs of graphic design, word processors, spreadsheets, a graphing.
The Main drawback of markup pages is that they require considerable computing resources, resulting in PDL printers format data more slowly. This is overcome by installation of more powerful printer controller, which affects the cost of the device.
Among PDL languages are:
- the PostScript-language from Adobe Systems, originally used in Apple computers. It has the advantage of greater image detail and independence of the print results from the printing device used, and the lack of – to slow, high requirements for memory and the lack of support on many platforms.
- PCL-a language created by Hewlett-Packard, whose main difference is the use of the resources of the printer to form the image that reduces file size, speeds up processing and reduces the print time. However, different print devices, the result may look the same, but in a Macintosh environment, the language is not supported.
The main parameters laser printers are available, the types and amount of used memory. The latter is the main component in the printer controller. It contains an array of pixels that forms the image, the raw data and commands sent from the computer, as well as fonts, forms and graphics. Settings laser printer directly dependent on the amount of internal memory. The bigger it is, the more data it can use simultaneously.
In addition, the additional memory can speed up printing because the controller can prepare a bitmap image of the page, while the previous printed. It will not increase maximum printing speed, the printer will simply be more likely to achieve it.
Many personal and office printers are supplied as standard - only memory is sufficient for printing plain text documents. Since graphics is a significant part of it, the device is not able to print the large image. In addition, the memory can store additional fonts, which reduces the space available for the images. Additional memory is often required for complex applications such as graphics, presentations and desktop publishing. Thus, the laser printer photo settings, text files (their size, number of fonts used, the degree of load) that you want to print, have a significant impact.
Memory is usually supplied on a printed circuit Board that is inserted into the printer controller. In some devices it has the design features of the manufacturer of the printer, the other can use the standard modules designed for the PC.
As the printer controller is a specialized computer, he needs access todata. Small devices store information in ROM, but users who have many fonts, for example, graphic designers may need additional storage space. And some printers offer the ability to connect a hard or SSD drive. Discs can be fitted or supplied with its own power supply and be connected to the printer cable.
Another question being asked when you choose a laser printer: "Which parameters vary depending on the paper?" In laser printers is generally used a sheet of stationery paper. Page size is limited by the size of the input tray-container, insert the feeder paper. Most laser printers are supplied with trays all one standard size, which is referred to US Letter (8,5x11 inch), and the rest of the world – A4 (210 ммх297 mm). Different paper sizes can be used with trays of appropriate size, usually sold separately, or in a very awkward manual feed mode. Therefore, the main parameters of laser printers can be attributed to the format used in the paper.
Some models allow you to adjust tray for different paper sizes. Desktop laser printers because of their size are not designed for the paper format A4 or Letter-sized more. Large printers are able to print on paper of A3 or 17 "X11" at a speed twice below par.
In addition to paper, most laser printers can print on other materials including thin cardboard, stickers and overhead projection transparencies. It is also possible to print on envelopes using the manual feed or with the optional envelope feeder.
The Number and capacity of trays depends on the size and type of printer. Most personal printers has one input feeder for 100 sheets of standard paper and manual feeder. Office printers usually have two trays of 250 sheets each. Printers working groups equipped with special feeders with electric capacity of 1000 sheets. Large production printers can have multiple feeders of the motor drive with a capacity of up to 3,500 sheets each.
Option two-sided printing also refers to the main parameters of laser printers. Most desktop devices are simplex, i.e. they print on one side of the paper. Some are equipped with an auxiliary duplex unit, inverting a sheet of paper before printing the other side. Outdoor printers almost all have a built-in duplex unit printing. Duplex is required when printing documentation, technical guidelines, but is not necessary for the needs of office printing.
Double-Sided print one side of paper, invert it, and then print on the other side, i.e., on a single sheet spent two printing operations. Because of this, the print speed duplex printers half less one-sided.
For office users is typically a duplex printer is not needed, but in rare cases, two-sided printing is required. Therefore, the printers can operate in the mode of “manual duplex” when you print one side of the document, then the user independently rotates the sheet of paper and continues printing. Manual two-sided printing multipage documents difficult, as it requires the software to be able to print even and odd pages separately.
The Duplexes are typically less reliable than simplex, as the turning mechanism is mechanically complicated paper, and the paper it is jammed. In addition, the print mechanism does not always feed paper in a perpendicular position so the edge of the printed sheet is not always parallel to the edge of the paper. This imbalance is particularly noticeable when printing double-sided.
In addition to the above, the main parameters of laser printers include:
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