Giambattista Vico: biography and writings


2018-04-01 09:29:15




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The Founder of the study of the historical process, the Italian philosopher of the second half of the sixteenth and first seventeenth century the focus of this article. Giambattista Vico characterized the course of providential history as an objective process, where each nation is cyclical three - eras- divine (when the state is not yet have all the power of the priests), heroic (when the state is in the hands of the aristocrats) and human (when there are either representative monarchy or democratic Republic).

Giambattista Vico


Neapolitan philosopher and scientist Giambattista Vico was born in Jun 1668 in a large family. Father sold books, so joined the science boy quite early, even before entering the Jesuit school. It is not surprising that the level of education there was not staged. Vico Giambattista is so persistently engaged in self-education that the school lifestyle this occupation interfered with, because I had to leave. The knowledge he gained quickly, and the most extensive, diverse and deep.

Among his activities was not only the ancient languages besides Latin and Italian, Giambattista Vico studied literature, law, philosophy, history, lived freely in the element of the works of Cicero, Virgil, Horace, Petrarch, Dante, Boccaccio, and many others. Real fame in his native city he earned as a lawyer and a home teacher, but despite this financial constraint was its normal state. So the great man was not shy to write custom articles, speeches, poems and the like.

Recognition works

At the age of thirty Vico became Professor of rhetoric, University of Naples, the walls of which employs more than half a century, and his works and philological scholarship to acquire a wide recognition. By Giambattista Vico was born a number of purely scientific works about the basics of the Latin language, and came from the ancient Italian world, about the modern method in science Antonio Caraffa - "Four books", on the basis of universal rights, which are common, the laws and their consistency, and many other thoroughly studied those embodied in books.


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And in 1725 came the chief work of his life, to the present day is the subject of study. Wrote Vico, Giambattista "the Grounds of New science about the nature of Nations", and the work was instantly sold out and literally wsapoll a wider audience with great interest discussed the ideological promises of the author. The controversy was acute, and this theme is considered the hottest until now. The name of the author learned in the farthest corners of academic Europe, but many colleagues did not share worldview, which adhered to Giambattista Vico. Sources of the progressive development of humanity they found in other places.

Giambattista Vico sources of progressive development

Defending views

Giambattista Vico is a representative of science, which from their beliefs to reject, can not, but because he tried in different ways to affect the opinions of colleagues, to convince them of the correctness. And therefore was prepared two new editions, where he tried more clearly to develop the ideas of the previous works in the form of debate with critics.

Then Giambattista Vico, the concept of which has not changed the views on the nature of Nations, wrote an autobiography, and if not purely scientific, then, shall we say, intelligent, where all of his research and discoveries in the world of science is reflected. In 1735 he was appointed the place of historiographer of the Kingdom of Naples only, and therefore, finally, material shortage, he ceased to feel. However, teaching is not abandoned: Latin literature and rhetoric he taught students at home.

Giambattista Vico sociology

General idea

These mentors scientist, whose ideas he considered more than family, was Tacitus, Plato, Francis bacon and Hugo Grotius. Giambattista Vico is representative of the field of knowledge cannot do without works of Pico della Mirandola, Marsilio Ficino, Galileo and Bruno Gargano as well and Niccolo Machiavelli had on the worldview of the scientist a big impact.

Up To a certain point, all the works of Vico, wrote in Latin, and then realized that I would be able to significantly expand the capabilities and limits of the native language, but because the writing of Giambattista Vico "New science" was published in Italian. Rather, it turned out more not quite Italian it has not yet been born as a single national language, it was a fun and intricate Neapolitan dialect.

Giambattista Vico is


The Manner of presentation and this book remains the same - it was purely scientific, and therefore confusing and dark to understand, and when the above has still not applied to all territories of the plain language of Naples - not every Italian was able to get to those ideas which the book was laid out by the author, and feel them.

Built the book was using the axiomatic deductive method as the normal and geometric treatise, in which Giambattista Vico's ideas were developed, fiercely criticizing the bias and subjectivity inherent in not only individuals, but whole peoples.

He did Not like the methodsextrapolation, which at that time prevailed in all humanitarian knowledge. Exposed the shortcomings of Descartes's philosophy. Excessive rationalism and the subjectivism of ideas this enemy of empiricism have often been the objects of criticism, which was perpetrated by Giambattista Vico.

Giambattista Vico, the concept


The New science designated as a historical philosophy, the author has identified as a theology, only rationalized and secular. Giambattista Vico on legal progress wrote at the time unheard of things.

For Example, that public laws are of course established by God (or Providence), but the natural internal causes often unfold the historical process in the other side from the divine plans. This is the objective nature of this phenomenon.

Human activity is realized with natural determinism, that is, the law of universal causality, and historical laws direct and regulate the spontaneity of the struggle for human interests.

Public cycle

Innovator of the Vico has revealed the principle of the unity of mankind with the submission of any and all peoples and countries social development according to universal laws. The theory of the social cycle outlined by Giambattista, know now.

The people evolving in cycles, like living the childhood, youth and maturity, developing in the ascending line, where each stage negates the previous one, and the change of times there are social upheavals created by social conflicts. The cause of conflict are, as always, property relations.

The Cycle always ends with the crisis of society, its demise, and all the cells of the social organism subject to degradation. Then a new cycle begins.

Giambattista Vico ideas


Vico shows the social processes as the integrity of the interaction between the parties. Each stage - "century" - has its own law and language, customs, and religion, institutions, social and economic. The Foundation for their generalizations of Vico chose the history of Rome. "Age of the gods" - primal savagery and bestial freedom without borders, the absence of any statehood. The power of the gods (or rather the priests). The world is ruled by piety and fear. Then the fathers of families to tie the war with the servants and household, to stop the state in which the first will rule and the second is to cultivate the land. At this point, and begins the "age of heroes" when the fathers of families appears to know, and of the servants of the household - the common people. Patricians and plebeians. The nature of the state aristocratic, feudal lords use force and deceit to hold power. The time when the strong is always right.

However, simple people can not wait for their turn to win. "Age of heroes" ends with the beginning of the "century people" - the highest stage of the cycle. Ordinary people wins and destroys the feudal lords. Republic or a monarchy with civil and political equality differs humane character, triumph the mind, conscience and duty. The right becomes rational. Flourishing of science, craft, art, in the first periods absent. Trade brings people together, humanity has the unity, prosperity. But democratic freedoms tend to grow to the size of the anarchy that leads to the destruction of the entire social order. Comes the collapse of the state and the beginning of a new "age of the gods."

Giambattista Vico is a representative


However, the Carthage in this historiographical scheme does not fit. And not only him. Vico admits that exceptions exist, and the concept that is presented above, covers only a majority. Advances in science, which gave us us Vico, - the dialectic in the study of many aspects of society and dissemination of historicism. In all this the author has greatly surpassed even the French enlightenment. In addition, many new Vico brought to the consideration of the problems of philosophy and history, philosophy and law, comparative linguistics, Philology, and so on.

Essential tools for the understanding of history he believed the study of law, mythology, folk rituals and, above all, language. Dreamed of Vico on the development and establishment of the unity of science, widespread education. He was right. The synthesis of the Sciences is now critical to technology development. He bowed before the eternal works of Homer - "iliadou" and "Odyssey", including their historical source complete and accurate, however, prove to everyone that Homer himself is a mythical figure. Ideas, which he formulated, are not forgotten, though far from the transition era from New time in Education it has been many centuries.

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Alin Trodden - author of the article, editor
"Hi, I'm Alin Trodden. I write texts, read books, and look for impressions. And I'm not bad at telling you about it. I am always happy to participate in interesting projects."

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