Republic of Nepal, known as the birthplace of the Buddha, is the most mountainous country in the world. On the North side it is bordered by Great Himalayan range, is famous for several peaks exceeding 8000 meters, including the Everest-the highest mountain on the planet (8,848 meters).
According to popular belief, this place was considered the abode of the gods, so nobody thought to get up there.
Top of the world even had special names: Chomolungma (“Mother & ndash; goddess of peace”) – the Tibetans and Sagarmatha (“the Forehead of the sky”) – the Nepalese. Everest it became known only since 1856, was not accepted by China, India, and the person responsible for renaming - British aristocrat, scientist, surveyor, military man in one person – George Everest, who managed first to determine the exact location of the Himalayan peaks and its height. The press still from time to time there are disputes on that mountain, being in Asia, should not have a European name. Who first climbed mount Everest-the top of which dreams almost every climber?
The Nature of Everest, with rocks, snow and eternal ice dangerously harsh and silently beautiful. There is almost always dominated by severe frost (up to -60 °C), the often phenomenon - avalanches, and avalanches, and the tops of the mountains from all sides blowing evil wind, the gust speed reaches 200 km/h. At a height of about 8 thousand meters starts “zone of death”, called such for lack of oxygen (30% of the amounts present at sea level).
However, despite such harsh natural conditions, the conquest of Everest was and is a cherished dream of many mountaineers around the world. To stand on top a few minutes to make history, to see the world from a celestial height – is it not happiness? For this unforgettable moment, the climbers are willing to risk their lives. And risk, knowing that you can stay in the back of beyond the edge for ages eternal. Factors possible death of a person, where it comes from, is lack of oxygen, frostbite, trauma, heart failure, fatal accidents and even the indifference of the partners.
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So, in 1996 a group of climbers from Japan when climbing Everest has met with three Indians – the climbers were in a semiconscious state. They died because the Japanese had no help “competitors”, indifferently passing by. In 2006 42 mountaineer along with a TV channel «Discovery» indifferently passed by slowly perishing from hypothermia Englishman David sharp was trying to interview him and take photographs. In the end, the brave man who dared single-handedly to conquer Everest, died from frostbite and oxygen starvation. One of the Russian climbers Alexander Abramov such actions colleagues explains: “At a height of over 8000 meters of the person seeking to climb to the top, completely self-absorbed and has no extra power to assist in such transcendent terms”.
So after all who first climbed mount Everest? The opening of George Everest, who never, this mountain is not conquered, gave rise to unbridled desire of many climbers to reach the top of the world, that the first (in 1921) decided George Mallory – the national Everest. unfortunately, his attempt was unsuccessful: the heavy snow, strong wind and lack of experience of the climb to such a height was stopped by a British climber. However, the top of unattainable Manila Mallory, and he made two more unsuccessful ascent (1922 and 1924). During the last expedition of George Mallory and his companion in the bunch, Andrew Irvine, disappeared without a trace. Through a gap in the clouds, rising to the top, they saw one of the members of the expedition, Noel Odell. Only after 75 years of American search expedition at altitude 8155 meters were discovered the remains of Mallory. Judging by their location, the climbers fell into the abyss. Also in academic circles, the study of remains and their location, it has been suggested that George Mallory – the first man who conquered Everest. The body of Andrew Irvine was found and was not.
1924-1938 years were marked by the organization of several expeditions, however, unsuccessful. After them on the Everest for a while forgotten, because the Second world war.
Everest who first conquered? Storm ascended the summit was decided in 1952, the Swiss, however, the maximum height passed them stopped at around 8500 meters 348 meters didn't yield to climbers due to bad weather conditions.
If we assume that Mallory couldn't get to the top of the highest mountain in the world, the question of who first conquered Everest, you can say, – the new Zealander Edmund Hillary in 1953, and not himself, and with the assistant – Norheim a Sherpa Tenzing.
By the way, the Sherpas (in Tibetan, "cher" East, “PA” - people) – the very people without whom, perhaps, hardly anyone would be able to achieve the coveted top. It is a mountain people who settled in Nepal over500 years ago. It is the Sherpas are most easily able to climb Everest because the mountain – their home, where knew every trail with the kid.
Sherpa – very good-natured people, can not cause offense to anyone. The killing of the common mosquito or the field mouse is considered a terrible sin that you want very much to pray for. The Sherpas have their own language, but currently they almost all speak English. This is a great achievement of Edmund Hillary, the first conqueror of Everest. In gratitude for the invaluable help he at his own expense built a school in one of the main villages.
Although all of the insight into the life of Sherpa civilization, their way of life remains largely Patriarchal. The traditional settlement – it is a stone two-storey house on the first floor which usually contains livestock: yaks, sheep, goats, and the family, as a rule, is located on the second floor; there also are the kitchen, bedroom, common room. Furniture a minimum. Thanks to mountaineers-the pioneer not so long ago there was electricity; gas or some kind of Central heating they have still not. As fuel for cooking, they use dung of yaks, which is pre-harvested and dried on the rocks.
Unattainable mount Everest… Who first conquered this distant peak: Edmund Hillary or George Mallory? The answer scientists are looking for today, as well as the answer to the question, in what year was mount Everest in 1924 or 1953.
Everest yielded not one person even raised the records on a temporary climb to the top. For example, in 2004, the Sherpa Pemba Dorji came to her from the base camp in 10 hours 46 minutes, while the majority of climbers on the same operation takes up to several days. Fastest down the mountain in 1988, the Frenchman Jean-Marc Boivin, however, the jump he did on the Aero plane.
Women to conquer Everest, in no way inferior to men, also, stubbornly and persistently overcoming every meter of climb. First the fairer half of humanity in 1975, is the Japanese Junco Taba, 10 days – Phantom, Tibetan mountaineer.
Who first climbed Everest among the elderly? The oldest conqueror of the summit is 76-year-old resident of Nepal – Min Bahadur Sher Khan, and the youngest-13-year-old American Jordan Romero. Is of interest perseverance of another young conqueror of the “top of the world” - 15-year-old Sherpa Temba Tseri, the first attempt which was unsuccessful because of a lack of power, and frostbite of both hands. Upon returning Tembe amputated 5th finger that didn't stop him, he conquered Everest on his second ascent.
Among persons with disabilities also have the first man who conquered Everest. This is mark Inglis, who rose to the top of the world in 2006 with the help of the prosthesis. Hero even joked that unlike other climbers, don't frostbitten toes. And legs he had frostbite before, while trying to ascend the highest peak of New Zealand - cook's peak, after which they had to be amputated.
Apparently, Everest has some magical power to hundreds of climbers. Dominated him once again back, trying to do it again.
Who first climbed mount Everest? Why are people so drawn to this place? The reasons for this, quite a lot. Tickling nerves, lack of thrills, the desire to test yourself the boredom of everyday life….
A Texas millionaire dick bass – the man who conquered Everest. He, not being a professional climber, was not going to spend years on a thorough preparation for the dangerous ascent and decided to conquer the world at once, as they say: here and now. Bass was willing to pay any money to someone who will contribute to the realization of his seemingly impossible dreams.
Dick bass has managed to conquer Everest, and the assistants in the expedition were assembled team, provide the millionaire comfort when climbing up; people were carrying the entire load, tents, oxygen tanks, water, food. That is to say, the ascent passed by type «all inclusive», and this was the beginning of commercial travel to the top.
Since then, since 1985, to reach the summit everyone can have a sufficient amount of cash. To date, the cost of one such ascent varies from 40 to 85 thousand dollars, depending on the side of the hill. If the trip is happening from the side of Nepal, it is more expensive because it requires special permission of the king, worth 10 thousand dollars. The remaining amount is paid for the organization of the expedition.
In 2005, Mona Mule Pam and Georgie played on top of the world wedding. After climbing a couple a few minutes and removed the oxygen mask, putting on a neck traditional colored lights. Then Pam anointed scarlet powder to the forehead of his bride, symbolizing the marriage. The couple the act was kept a secret from everyone: parents, friends, companions on the expedition, because he was not confident in the successful outcome of the planned event.
So how many people climbed mount Everest? Assurprisingly, to date, more than 4,000 people. The best period for climbing in gentle weather conditions is considered to be spring and autumn. However, this idyll lasts very little time - just a few weeks that climbers try to use as productively as possible.
According to statistics, of those who stormed Everest, dies every ten, and most of the accidents occur during the descent, when power is almost gone. Theoretically, to conquer Everest for a few days. In practice, however, requires a gradual and optimal combination of UPS and halts.
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