Lowercase: terms of use

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2018-10-30 16:00:43

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Uppercase and lowercase letter – letters daily used for writing. The first is a capital letter (large), and the second smaller (small).

lowercase

A Little history

Initially, when writing used only capital letters, where the boundaries (upper and lower) were clearly defined. Over time, cursive writing developed, letters have gained a more rounded shape. Thus arose the foundations of the so-called minuscule letters of the Carolingians, which was developed by the scholar Alcuin. Used it at the court of Charlemagne, and eventually spread this letter all over Europe. So for the first time a single text was to contain uppercase and lowercase letters.

Uppercase and lowercase letters

Uppercase and lowercase is one of the most challenging problems of the modern Russian spelling. The constant change of reality entails a change of writing these letters. So you need to constantly study the new publications of handbooks and dictionaries that must necessarily reflect such innovations.

But, despite this, there are basic principles of the use of uppercase and lowercase letters. They help to understand the writing big and small letters even if a word in the dictionary is missing.

capitalization

Terms of use uppercase letters

Written With a capital letter:

  • The first word is at the beginning of sentences and texts;
  • First name, middle name, last name, nickname and alias (Maxim Gorky, Seraphim of Sarov);
  • Pet's name (Ingvar, bear Boris, the cat Vaska);
  • Common noun a noun that acts as a literary character (little Red riding Hood);
  • Own geographic name (Europe)
  • Nominal noun, the name of the titles, professions, ranks, members of the geographical names (Sosnovy Bor);
  • The official word at the beginning of geographic names (Los Angeles);
  • The astronomical name of individual (mercury, milky Way, southern Cross);
  • All of the words that comprise the names of political parties, enterprises, institutions, foreign firms, excluding service (UN Security Council, the state Council, the European Parliament);
  • All the words that make up the official names of States (Chechen Republic, Republic of France);
  • The first word of names of institutions of culture and entertainment (Moscow operetta theatre);lowercase and uppercase
  • The names of the highest honorary titles and higher positions, which are specified in official documents (Vice-President of the Russian Federation, the President of the United States);
  • The names of historical events and eras (era of rebirth, the Renaissance, the July commune);
  • Words at the beginning of names: Central, State, national, international, Russian, the world (international monetary Bank);
  • Word Fatherland, Motherland, People, Hope, Wisdom, Center, etc. located in special stylistic use;
  • The pronoun You (Your) as a form of politeness;
  • The names of religious books, and Church events (Bible, Easter, Pentecost);
  • Abbreviations that are formed from proper names (the United Nations – UN);
  • Possessive adjectives (the question "whose?"), contains the suffixIn-ov (-EV), which are formed from proper names and nicknames of animals (Fadini books, Rafaelia Madonna, Odisseia journey);
  • The name of a literary work, news agencies, press agencies, besides the need to allocate quotes (Roman "Crime and punishment");
  • The names and abbreviations of the titles of the production brands of technical products (“Volga”, ZIL);
  • Individual names of aircraft, ships, trains (vehicle “Titanic”).

uppercase and lowercase letter is

Terms of use lowercase letters

The Lowercase letter is written if it is a part:

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  • Articles, prepositions, particles in the Western European titles and private names (Beethoven Ludwig baths);
  • Personal names, which are intended ironic or negative evaluation (the latter-day loginy);
  • Nouns formed from names and personal names (oblomovism);
  • The component parts of Turkic and Arabic names which indicate relationship or social situation (al, ass, Beck, yeah);
  • Names of units that was the name of the scientist (amps);
  • Words earth, moon, sun, which are not astronomical names;
  • Adjectives containing the suffix -SK- denoting identity, formed from proper names (Chekhov page);
  • Names of ranks and positions (Deputy Minister, mayor);
  • Abbreviations formed from a common noun names (University – high school).

Lowercase letter written in the names:

  • Geological eras and periods, archaeological cultures and eras (the Mesozoic era);
  • Posts and titles, of international organizations, as well as higher foreign elected institutions (the Emperor of Japan, major-General, Ambassador);
  • Authorities plural (Russian ministries);
  • Animal breeds (dogthe Keeshond);
  • Institutions, whose names are not proper names (school №592).

lower-case letters of the Russian alphabet

Principles of the use of uppercase and lowercase letters

Having Studied the above rules, there are basic principles on which used uppercase and lowercase letters. So:

  • The assignment of specific segments of sentences (text) – syntactic principle.
  • The Selection of certain words in the text:

1) Lowercase letter is written to nick-names lowercase-names-morphological principle.

2) the capital letter is written in the common names, endowed with a special symbolism or pathos (People, Fatherland), in the names of holidays (New year, Victory Day) – semantic principle.

3) the capital letter is used in abbreviations composed of the first letters.

Discern

As already mentioned, the lowercase letter is written in adjectives that contain the suffix -SK- denoting identity and formed from proper names. Therefore, "Pushkin's prose" is written in small letters. But the possessive adjectives with the suffix -SK- with a value name in honor of someone's memory, are written with capital letters. For example, "Lomonosov readings".

Word: uppercase and lowercase letters

In connection with the rapid development of information technologies, wide popularity was received by the Microsoft Office Word, which is almost indispensable in the labour and educational process. But few people know how to make lowercase from uppercase, and Vice versa with one click of some keys.uppercase and lowercase

So, write in capital letters the following text:

"the LOWERCASE LETTERS of the RUSSIAN ALPHABET".

Now you need to highlight the text and press Shift and F3 simultaneously. After that, we get:

"the lowercase letters of the Russian alphabet".

After pressing combinations of these keys will receive the following:

"the Lowercase Letters of the Russian Alphabet".

And to revert to the original text, again to press Shift+F3.

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