Carved on a stone pillar rules: the laws of king Hammurabi


2019-06-18 10:00:24




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Archeology at all times opened to humanity the secrets of a past life. One of the most valuable finds made in the early 20th century on the territory of the ancient city of Susa, became carved on a stone pillar rules, which later was named Hammurabi. What is this a code, and who was his Creator? We will tell you right now.

Who is Hammurabi: a brief biography

About Hammurabi, the king of the ancient Babylonian state, to ascend to the throne, little is known. In 1793 BC, he became the sole ruler of your still small Empire. Almost immediately he started preparing for a war of conquest against surrounding city-States: Larsa, Yixing, Margiana, Rupicola and Erech. His plans were implemented by the end of 1781, but of our era, bringing Hammurabi United the lands of Lower Mesopotamia into a powerful Empire, who did not know defeats.

carved on a stone pillar rules

The Assertion of Royal power and influence of his Empire on the economy and commodity-money relations in the region further strengthened its sole authority. However these aggressive campaigns famous king.

A Real achievement at the time was the establishment of the original Constitution – the laws of Hammurabi. Carved on a stone pillar rules, which at that time lived in Babylon, were not only historical monument, but also a good source of information about the structure of the state and social life in that era.

External a stone pillar with laws

The Laws of Hammurabi written in Sumerian language alphabet is more reminiscent of cuneiform. Carved on a stone pillar rules are perfectly preserved, which allowed to thoroughly examine all the details of the legal and state structure of Babylon during the reign of the Creator of the laws, and for many centuries after his death.

carved on a stone pillar rules on which

The pole is made of basalt, a fairly durable stone. Its upper front part is crowned with a bas-relief image of Hammurabi receiving from the sun God SHAMMASH those laws.

The rest of the surface is dotted with inscriptions, setting forth how man should live in the country, than to be guided when making any transactions, the conclusion or divorce, and identifies the main measures of punishment for misconduct. The text is divided into three conditional parts: introduction, 282 rules and conclusion. It is worth noting that carved on a stone pillar rules survive: 35 of them were erased. However, they managed to recover with the help of the documents preserved in the library of king Ashurbanipal of Assyria.


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The Laws of king Hammurabi: what areas of life regulated by the rules

Hammurabi, according to set out on a basalt column rules tried to regulate practically all spheres of life in the state. The laws contain a number of points in the field of trade relations, in particular, the seller's liability for selling poor-quality goods, including jewelry, fabrics and even ships. Carved on the stone pillar the rules are explained in detail and the consequences of any criminal acts, be it theft, intentional or accidental murder or sorcery. In addition, they provide for liability for perjury. A large proportion of the laws is devoted to the institution of marriage and family law, and property relations.

the laws of king Hammurabi

Historical value of Hammurabi

The historical value of Hammurabi can be judged only by the fact that it is the only well-preserved source, which allowed us to learn not only about the ancient Babylonian, but of ancient law in General. Scientists came to the conclusion that the king of Babylon of the state had based its laws and the rules which prevailed in the society at that time, but not all were required to perform. Also the laws of Hammurabi allowed to understand many aspects of life in Mesopotamia in the 2nd Millennium BC.

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