Intestine ileum. Functions, diseases, treatment


2018-03-17 20:51:19




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Iliac Colon (from the Latin word “ileum”) represents the lower part of the small intestine. This element of the digestive tract has its own function and structure. About them you can read below.iliac colon

Ileum: where are you located?

Ileum located in the right iliac fossa (or lower abdomen) and is separated from the blind gut with bauhinias dampers, or so-called ileocecal valve. A small part of this body is adorable, umbilical region and the pelvic cavity.


The Gut ileum and skinny intestine is quite similar in structure. The entire inner layer of the body is a mucous membrane which is richly covered with villi (rise of about 1 millimeter). In turn, the surface of these elements consist of a cylindrical epithelium. In the center is a lymphatic sinus, as well as the capillaries (blood vessels).

It Should be particularly noted that the villi in the intestine iliac is much less than in the jejunum. However, they all participate in the process of obtaining the beneficial nutrients. Fats are absorbed in lymph vessels, and amino acids and monosaccharides – venous. The entire mucosa of the ileum has a fairly uneven surface. This is due to the presence of crypts, villi and circular folds. These formation greatly increases the overall surface of the intestinal lining, which undoubtedly affects the process of absorption of digested food.

Features of the structure of ileum

ileum where there is a

Skinny and ileum have the same hairs, the shape of which resembles the leaves or fingers. It should be noted that they are only in the lumen of said bodies. The number of villi in the intestine iliac can range from 18 to 35 pieces on 1 sq. mm. While they are a little thinner than those that are the duodenum.


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The Crypts of the intestine, or so-called liberkey cancer, are deepening in the shell have the form of small tubes. The mucosa and submucosa of the ileum to form a circular folds. The epithelium is a single layer prismatic on them kamchatyi. By the way, the mucous membrane of this organ has its own submucosa, followed by muscle tissue. Latest presents 2 smooth layers of fibers: the outer (or lateral) and internal (or circular). Between them is a loose connective tissue which has blood vessels and nerve musculo-intestinal plexus. The thickness of this layer decreases toward the terminal part of the small intestine. It should be noted that the muscular coat of this organ performs the function of mixing the chyme and push it.

The Outer shell of the iliac colon – the serous. It it is covered from all sides.

Main functions of the ileum

Presented body performs several functions. These include the following:

  • Select enzymes
  • The absorption of nutrients, minerals and salts;
  • Digest the incoming food.

Features the work of ileum

terminal ileum

Intestinal juice that body starts to separate under the influence of chemical and mechanical irritation of the walls of the chyme. 24 hours its production can reach 2.4 liters. The reaction of the juice is alkaline, and its dense part of the lumps-epithelial cells that produce and accumulate the enzyme. At the appropriate time, the cells begin to be cut off to the intestinal lumen, and then disintegrate, thereby providing cavitary digestion.

It Should be noted that on the surface of each epitheliocyte microforming. They represent a kind of outgrowths, which recorded the enzyme. Thanks to them there is another level of digestion, called membrane (parietal). At this stage in the ileum hydrolysis of food and absorption.

As is known, juice of the intestines contains exactly 22 enzyme. Main call enterokinase. This enzyme is designed to activate pancreatic trypsinogen. In addition, the intestine ileum secretes a juice, which contains substances such as lipase, amylase, Saharsa, peptidase and alkaline phosphatase.

The Promotion of chyme into other divisions of the intestinal tract is due to the contraction of the fibers of the muscular layer. Their basic types of movement can be called peristaltic and pendulum. The second group of cuts produces mixing of the chyme. As for the worm-like (peristaltic) waves, they promote the food in the distal.

By the Way, both represented the type of digestion exist in the immediate context. For abdominal hydrolysis of more complex substances to so-called intermediate. Then processed products are cleaved by a membrane digestion. Then begins the absorption of nutrients and minerals. This is due to increased intracolonic pressure and motility of the muscle tissue and the movement of the villi.

Violations in diseases of the ileum

functions of the ileum

Ileum (where the body is described a bit above) quite often subjected to inflammatory processes. All diseases of this part of the small intestine have similar symptoms. As a rule, they are based on the violation of the digestive, excretory, suction and motor functions. In medical practice, these deviations decided to unite under one common name-a malabsorption syndrome.

Common symptoms

Ileum, diseases which can occur for various reasons, almost always makes itself felt on the General signs of sickness. These include the following:

  • Pain syndromes;
  • Irregularity;
  • The rumbling in the intestines;
  • Flatulence.

Quite often patients complain to their doctors that they have long lasting diarrhea with trips to the bathroom 4-7 times a day. While in the feces can be found undigested remains of food. In the first half of the day, often the patient feels a rumbling in the intestines, which usually subsides by tonight.

The Affected intestine iliac sometimes causes pain. They may have different localization (in the umbilical region to the right of the midline of the abdomen and under the "spoon") and character (arching, nagging and whining). As a rule, the intensity of pain decreases significantly after the discharge of the formed gases.

ileum diseases

External symptoms of disease of the ileum

Diseases of this part of the small intestine can be accompanied by extraintestinal manifestations. They are due to malabsorption and breakdown of nutrients, vitamins and minerals. Patients quite quickly lose weight and can't recover. Deficiency of b-vitamins and iron often leads to anemia, cracks in the corners of the lips and inflammation of the oral cavity. If the body become starved of vitamin A, it can manifest itself in dryness of the conjunctiva and night blindness. If the body of the patient has a hemorrhage, it indicates deficiency of vitamin K.

Crohn's Disease

The Most severe and widespread disease of this part of the small intestine is Crohn's disease (or so-called terminal ileitis). Usually with this diagnosis the inflammation is in the last 15-20 centimetres of the ileum. Rarely involves a blind, fat, and duodenal the gastrointestinal tract.

Inflammation of the ileum, the symptoms of which we will discuss below, it is time to treat. Otherwise in 3-4 years the patient can develop complications such as intestinal obstruction, fistulas, abscesses, peritonitis, amyloidosis, bleeding, etc.

The Symptoms of Crohn's disease

The Signs of this disease are different.

  • Intense pain in the right pane (often resemble the clinical picture of acute appendicitis). While the patient is in a fever, worried about the constant nausea and vomiting. Usually pain occur after 3-5 hours after eating.
  • The Development of anemia and exhaustion.
  • Scarring of the ileum, causing intestinal obstruction.
  • Chronic constipation or diarrhea and rumbling in the intestines.
  • Bleeding or a small admixture of blood in the stool

Other diseases

Lymphoid hyperplasia of the ileum occurs in the background of immunodeficiency and proliferative changes in the walls of the intestine. Usually, such changes are transient in nature and often disappear without a trace by themselves. The cause of this deviation may be the inadequate reaction of the lymphoid tissue of the intestine, which occurs in response to external stimuli.skinny and ileum

Signs of lymphoid hyperplasia

The symptoms should include the following:

  • Diarrhea;
  • Abdominal pain;
  • Blood and mucus in the stool;
  • Flatulence and bloating;
  • Weight loss;
  • Low body resistance to various infections.

When severe hyperplasia may develop symptoms of intestinal non...

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Alin Trodden - author of the article, editor
"Hi, I'm Alin Trodden. I write texts, read books, and look for impressions. And I'm not bad at telling you about it. I am always happy to participate in interesting projects."

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