In modern medicine is still quite often used the procedure of blood transfusion. Blood transfusion blood – the process of its implementation from a healthy donor to a patient with impaired health (recipient). It requires the implementation of certain rules, and is not devoid of complications. Therefore, this operation is carried out with the utmost concentration on the part of medical personnel.
Before the procedure, the transfusion, the doctor will conduct a survey and research is needed. The donor or the recipient must have a passport, for proper accounting of all data. If available, a medical professional will examination of the patient or a donor, it measures blood pressure and identify possible contraindications.
The Transfusion of blood groups is subject to certain basics. Indications for manipulation, the required dose of transfused fluids are appointed by the medical specialist based on clinical data and tests. Rules of blood transfusion in groups created for the safety of both the donor and the recipient. A specialist needs, regardless of previously obtained survey, personally, to do the following:
An Important point of transfusion is the identification of biological fluids and the presence of infections. To do this, take a sample of blood for the General analysis, divide the received number into two parts and sent for study. In the laboratory, first check for the presence of infection, hemoglobin, etc. the Second is used to determine blood group and RH factor.
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The Transfusion of blood groups is necessary to ensure that the patient did not happen to the bonding of red blood cells through agglutination reaction, upon receipt of a measured sample. Blood group human body system classifications AVO are divided into 4 main varieties. Classification of AVO separation occurs due to the presence of specific antigens-A and B. Each of them is tied to a specific agglutinin: And bound to α and b β, respectively. Depending on the combination of these components can be formed in all the known blood groups. The combination of the homonymous components, otherwise the body will occur agglutination of red blood cells, and he simply can not continue to exist. Due to this possible only four known combinations:
Compatibility of blood groups for transfusion plays an important role in the operation. In medical practice transfusion is only the same compatible with each other species. Many people wonder, what blood group are universal donors, but do not understand the process. And yet there are those suitable components. What blood type is universal - the question has a definite answer. People with first blood due to the lack of antigens are universal donors, and those who have the fourth, are considered universal recipients. The compatibility of blood groups is to understand the process of blood transfusion.
Who can transfused (Donor)
Who can receive (recipient)
Groups 1 and 2
2 and 4 groups
1 and 3 groups
3 or 4 groups
Despite the fact that in the modern world there are many methods of treating of various diseases, to avoid the process of transfusion is still not feasible. The compatibility of blood groups helps medical experts to carry out the operation correctly, which helps to preserve the life and health of the patient. Ideal transfusion will always be the identical and the group and rhesus of blood. But there are times when a transfusion is vital to carry out in the shortest time then come to the aid of universal donors and recipients.
Scientific research in 1940 in the blood of macaques was found an antigen which was later named the RH factor. It is hereditary and depends on race. Those people in the blood which have this antigen are RH positive, and in the absence of RH-negative.
Compatibility for transfusion:
If you use the RH-positive patient's blood with RH-negative category, in the blood develop into special anti-rhesus agglutinins, while another manipulation will occur agglutination of erythrocytes. Accordingly, such a transfusion cannot occur.
Any transfusion – the stress for the human body. Whole blood is transfused only if the loss of this biological fluid is 25% and above. With the loss of a smaller amount use blood substitutes. In other cases, the transfusion of certain components, for example, Packed red cells, depending on the type of lesion.
To test the compatibility of the selected recipient serum is mixed with the sample from the donor on the white sheet of paper, tilting it in different directions. After five minutes, compare the results, if bonding of red blood cells, the donor and recipient are compatible.
Then check the compatibility tests in blood transfusion for the RH in one of two ways.
To relieve the risk of complications are checking the bioassay. To do this, carry out the transfusion small amounts of blood in the recipient, and three minutes to monitor his health. In the absence of negative effects: increase in heart rate, respiratory failure, manipulation repeat two more times, carefully watching the patient. The transfusion can be carried out only when there was no negative manifestations, otherwise the operation is not carried out.
After all the necessary manipulations to determine the blood group and compatibility begin to do the actual transfusion. Enter the blood is not supposed to be cold, is allowed only at room temperature. If the operation is urgent, the blood is heated in a water bath. The transfusion process is carried out with the help of drip system, or directly using a syringe. The infusion rate is 50 drops per 60 seconds. During the transfusion medical specialists every 15 minutes, measure the heart rate and blood pressure of the patient. After the manipulation the patient is shown at rest and medical supervision.
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