Diseases of urinary system are very common. Kidney damage cause of the development of their functional insufficiency. What are the characteristics of chronic inflammation of the kidneys? What is therapy required?
Chronic inflammation localized in the kidneys called "nephritis". Usually found bilateral involvement of the authorities. The etiological factor of the disease may be different. On the cause of the classification is based nephritis. All of these options inflammation are not only nature but also the clinical picture.
One of the etiological variants is pyelonephritis, which is more common in the female half of the population. Inflammation affects the calyx and pelvis, and the cause of such lesions is infection. It enters the kidney or blood (hematogenous) or through the urethra. The inflammatory process is accompanied by a violation of urination, in the urine can be detected the blood. Pain localized in the lumbar region, they become intense in the period of exacerbation.
Another option – glomerulonephritis, which affects the glomeruli and tubules partially. To provoke inflammation can immune disorders. Also contributing factors are cancer education and abscesses. Chronic process is characterized by relapses. During this period, there are nausea, dry mouth, weakness and violation of the chair.
Radiation nephritis occurs after exposure to the body of ionizing radiation. Occurs rapid the inflammation of the tubules, accompanied by early degeneration, and after – atrophy. It causes kidney failure. In the chronic period, concerned about weakness and increased blood pressure.
Tubulointerstitial nephritis – another form of pathology. Covers inflammation of the tubules, and interstitial or intermediate tissue. The reason may be the effects of toxic drugs, and some medications. The possible viral nature of the disease. The bodies are characterized by a hypertrophy-increase in size, their function is impaired.
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There are Also hereditary nephritis. It consists of Alport syndrome, which is accompanied by impaired hearing and vision. In men, the pathology is more severe.
The Chronic form is characterized by constant edema syndrome, a sign of metabolic disorders. In a laboratory study noted albuminuria and cholesterolemia. In addition, the characteristic syndrome of hypertension, that is, a periodic increase in pressure.
Later stages are characterized by such a deterioration of renal function, a syndrome of intoxication. As a result, blood appear toxins and waste products (nitrogenous compounds). The symptoms of this syndrome are fatigue, General malaise, headaches and increased blood pressure. With increasing uremia, that is, the accumulation of uric acid, it may release later. In this way the skin becomes dry. In more severe cases may be fatal.
In relapse chronic form, the main complaint is severe pain localized in the lumbar region and pelvis. Urination becomes painful, there is a burning sensation. Laboratory tests can detect in the urine, blood, pus. Observed oliguria-decreased urine output. Swelling remain. Supplement are headaches, nausea (and often vomiting), fatigue, xerostomia, diarrhoea, fever and hypertension. Chronic nephritis may result in the aggravation by overheating, overcooling, infection process.
Chronic nephritis, as a rule, is the outcome of acute option. The inflammation subsides and supplemented by hyperplastic processes. During jade aktiviziruyutsya the activity of fibroblasts, the main function of which – the formation of components of connective tissue. At stimulation of their activity occurs sclerotherapy. The structural elements of the kidneys are irreversibly replaced by connective tissue. As it does not fulfill specific renal parenchymal function, activity of the urinary system is broken – develops renal failure.
Glomerulonephritis, pyelonephritis, tubulointerstitial nephritis, and other types should be differentiated from each other and from other pathologies. Diagnosis is based on questioning, examination, and results of additional methods. First of all, patient interviewing, figuring out probable etiology – infection, toxic exposure, medications and so on. Among the standard methods – blood and urine tests that help to detect the pathology. Recommended urinary samples, for example to zimnitsky, Nechiporenko. They will help you to track not only the composition of urine and the daily urine output. Effective method of diagnosis-biopsy, i.e., tissue sampling for histological examination. It will help to track the processes of hardening. Although ultrasound, x-rays andtomography.
Additional methods allow to confirm the diagnosis. To suspect nephritis is possible on the basis of complaints (edema and hypertension).
The Treatment of nephritis of the kidneys depends on the etiology of the disease. So, for example, a bacterial disease require antibiotic treatment ("Cefuroxime", "Ciprofloxacin"). A viral cause (e.g., tubulointerstitial nephritis) requires appropriate antiviral therapy. It is therefore important to differentiate the various etiological variants of the disease.
In addition to etiotropic therapy is required symptomatic treatment. Appointed by cytostatics ("Doxorubicin", "Cyclophosphamide"), which help to protect the functional cells. In the period of recurrence of the essential anti-inflammatory medications, which reduce pain, hyperemia and swelling in the area of pathological process. High blood pressure requires the use of antihypertensive drugs ("lisinopril", "Captopril").
During the period of illness should follow the diet. Chronic nephritis affects the kidneys, therefore, disturbed excretory function. That is why we should abandon the excessive use of salt. Canned food, spices, and drinking large quantities of alcohol are contraindicated.
Renal nephritis of the chronic type is usually the outcome of acute. Therefore, preventive measures are early diagnosis and subsequent treatment of acute inflammation of the kidneys. To suspect the disease at an early stage if regular medical check-UPS – deviations in the General analysis of urine are an indication that the patient should be sent for consultation to a nephrologist.
Jade — kidney disease leading to impairment of their function. The chronic form is an irreversible and leads to formation of kidney failure. Pathology requires correction of lifestyle and application of some drugs. To prevent its formation will help the timely treatment of acute. Timely diagnosis can help in this.
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