Economic Sectors are related to each other industry. In their interaction they form a single system. The enterprise in market conditions is considered the main economic element. Its role is rather significant in this whole system. The economy is not just accords it a definite place in General. The company differs and compulsory affiliation to one or other economic sector in particular. Next, the article will consider what are the sectors of the national economy of the Russian Federation.
It's No secret that the economy is a complex and dynamic organism. The whole system is represented by different directions, due to the diversity of the production process. The structure of the sectors of the economy reflects its structure, the ratio of all links and available subsystems, relations and proportions formed between them. The study of different areas is important for economic development of the state, optimization of its components.
From the standpoint of total production of public goods and creating income is allocated two rather large areas: non-production part and material production. The latter consists of several subsystems. This:
As part of the service sector there are the following elements:
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To date, this system includes a huge number of organizations, companies and associations.
Summing up the characteristics of economic processes, the components of the whole production-industrial complex decided to cut into sectors. Under this term one should understand the totality of all institutional units, characterized by similar functions, behaviour and objectives. There is a classification of subsystems in accordance with the direction of activities. So, in Russia there are external sector and system, including government institutions, enterprises and households. Take a closer look.
As part of this sector of Russian economy there are a variety of organizations. Some activities can be directed on extraction of profit. Others have the status of "non-profit" companies. In the scope of companies included financial and non-financial companies. The latter should include a commercial organization engaged in production of goods or provision of services for profit. Nonfinancial companies are considered nonprofit associations, which are not intended to benefit from its activities. The value of this classification has regulatory authority. Depending on his character allocate government, non-government and foreign enterprises. The financial sector includes both nonprofit and commercial enterprises. The activities of the companies in this field focus on mediation, insurance, welfare and so on. In the banking sector includes the companies (CBR, for example). To this sector include other commercial companies. In the financial sector includes investment funds, sponsorship, pension, insurance, leasing, charitable foundations and organizations, stock exchanges and other enterprises.
This sector includes different judicial and the Executive and the legislature. In this area of activity includes the social security funds and non-profit corporations controlled by them. The government agencies, in turn, is divided into Federal, regional and municipal sector. The upper level controls the lower. Government agencies are regulated by law.
Agricultural sector mainly brings together the consuming elements. These include, in particular, include a variety of farms and enterprises which they formed. This sector is divided by several. Economy as a whole are classified by industry, labor, skill and expertise of the person acting as head, and, in fact, by occupation. Taking into account the type of income experts note the following subcategories: employees, who receive income from property, employers. In the subgroup may enter households by number of members, scope of total income or its location.
This sector includes a range of institutional units. These items represent non-residents located in other States. They have consulates, embassies, communications, database, and other organisations in Russia. This sector is closely linked with the foreign policy of the country. It includes not only organizations are non-residents, but those enterprises with which they interact.
Considering the economic activity of the country in General, experts distinguish also the state and the private sector. In the composition of the first group are institutions, companies, associations, enterprises, control of which is ensured by the state administrative apparatus. In the second subgroup, the regulation does not apply. There are also non-market and market sectors. This classification is set with the position of relations in the trade sphere. For a particular sector of a market economy characterized by the production process. Enterprises engaged in production of goods, the formation of a variety of services intended for distribution at a cost, impacting demand. In this sub-group is exchanged through barter of products or offers, finished goods inventory, payment of remuneration in kind. Within the non-market sector of the economy is the production of services or products used by owners of the enterprise or directly by the manufacturers themselves. Here there can be a transfer of manufactured goods or services gratuitously or at cost have no significant impact on demand. In this area of work should be allocated and the primary sector of the economy. It combines the industry associated with the mining of different raw materials and its further processing. The primary sector of the economy is of great importance for the development of the country as a whole.
It Should be noted that the sectors in the economy are formed from similar types of occupations. These activities are called sectors. In accordance with international statistics, with the whole economic system into a "production of goods" and "services". The first category should include agriculture, industry, construction and other production materials (recycling of raw materials, publishing, picking berries and so on). Industry services should include education, General government, trade, health, defense and so on.
These categories are formed within certain economic sectors or between them. Under the inter-sectoral complex, you should understand the integration system, which is characterized by the presence of interaction between different components and activities, stages of production and distribution of products. For example, in industry it is possible to allocate metallurgical, fuel and energy, machine-building areas. Complexes that bring together the various sectors of the economy, has a more complex structure. Such, for example, include a construction site.
The basis of this classification is based on different criteria. For example, for the target complexes are characterized by the reproductive principle. The basis of this cross-industry system is the criteria for participation in the production of final products. As examples there may be transport, fuel and energy, agroindustrial complexes. In the basis of functional systems, the criterion and the principle of specialization in accordance with a specific task. In this case, as examples of environmental, scientific and technological, and investment complexes. The unification of the evolving diversity – this is a consequence of the increasing part quality in the production aimed at the satisfaction of social needs.
According to most experts, the system of the domestic economy is not constant. Changes can occur either spontaneously or under the influence of regulating state activity. In addition, a large impact and various internal and external conditions. The latter include competition from overseas manufacturing plants. Of particular importance is the external environment-the state of the world's trading floors for specific types of products, as well as the price of oil. The internal factors include investment activity, competitiveness of the manufactured goods, production capacity and potential, the degree of effective demand.
Among the main instruments that contribute to the economic development of the country, should be called target programs, subsidies, government investment, procurement, and a variety of preferential concessions for businesses, industry groups and regions. According to analysts, the need for restructuring, improving economic activity of the Russian Federation is caused by the change of priorities in the country. To replace the administrative-command system had come a long market relations. In this regard, the nature of economicto the current situation. Improvement and development in accordance with the requirements of time possible in Russia due to a number of factors. Also important is the presence on the territory of the country vast natural resources, staff potential, as well as the implementation of continuous scientific and technological research.
Russia is developing various programs for the maintenance and further development of the economy. In particular, in the oil sector is expected to continue vertically integrated associations. Their focus is not only on the production but also processing received from the depths of raw materials. At the metallurgical enterprises provides the constant expansion of the volume and quality of produced steel. To achieve all that is necessary to use high-tech equipment, new advanced processes. In connection with the projected increase in metal prices, the industry is one of the most attractive for investment. This, in turn, will lead to the improvement of these enterprises. Industries characterized by high scientific and technical level (e.g. the production of rocket-space systems, nuclear industry, biotechnology, the direction of heavy machine tools, etc.), the state provides direct support. It is expressed in the form of export loans, various subsidies, public investment and procurement. However, the basic method of restructuring of the Russian economy applies the conversion and roll-out of companies with reduced capacity, increase in production volumes of goods that are most in demand in the external and domestic markets. An integral part of improving the system is considered to create the optimal conditions for the development of innovative and forward-looking activities that form a valid economic potential of the state.
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Alin Trodden - author of the article, editor
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