Under the subculture refers to a specific way of being, based on the implementation of natural human needs in personal development, self expression, understanding one's own destiny.
Each subculture exists outside the social system of economy or politics. Therefore, it is only marginally determined by material causes and objective factors of the existence. From the Latin term translates as "subculture". It is implied she is different from dominant.
Their carriers are also highlighted in a particular social group. The differences can be expressed in an alternative system of values, language, demeanor, etc. of Various subcultures can be formed on the basis of ethnic, national, professional or any other communities.
And what does the term counterculture? From the definition one can guess that this is no ordinary subculture, and sharply different from the dominant, conflicting with traditional values. Counterculture in literature and in life based on our own norms and morals of its representatives who are trying to subvert the dominant community setting. Vivid examples can be considered a counterculture youth revolution of the 60-ies of the 20th century, the movement of punks and hippies.
One of the classic, most oldest, include the counter-culture of the underworld. Her appearance due to the natural isolation of prisoners serving time, cut off from the accepted values. As a result, naturally have the dominant counterculture at its very rigid varieties with a clear hierarchy and well-defined laws.
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Since the sixties of the last century the concept of "mass culture" of the "counterculture" and "subculture" began to converge. The youth is trying to unite against a common “enemy”, seeing that in the face of society as a whole, or certain social phenomena. But between these definitions there is a difference. Let's consider the main differences of the youth subculture and counterculture as such.
The First of them there are, as a rule, in the atmosphere of the game, contrasting the concept of “We” and “They”. Busy youth subcultures rather constructive activities. Their goal – to create a special world. They do not seek to fight the enemy and often take a passive position.
The Concept of counter-culture involves existence in the form of a rally. Means the presence of a common enemy against which to fight. The basis for the existence of the counterculture is the work of a destructive nature, which purpose – victory over the enemy. Comes to open confrontation and a very real Declaration of war hostile to the values of society.
Typically, these distinctions are characteristic of pure forms of counter-culture and youth subculture. In practice there are many intermediate options that combine elements of both forms. The most striking examples of subculture and counterculture we present below.
Western sociologists, exploring the emergence of these forms of social life, see their origins in the need to develop fundamentally new standards of conduct, relevant to modern difficulties. Traditional forms of society and the family is unable to satisfy the aspirations of youth. Her, shocking society with an unusual lifestyle, appearance and behavior, are unable to achieve adequate self-expression in terms of the existing reality.
Any sub-culture have a number of characteristic features, which for her required. In the center of each of them is surely detected by the proactive module, which ideological support and generating new ideas. It is characteristic that representatives of one or another youth subculture as a rule, can be found only in the Metropolitan areas and large cities. In small towns the informal – the phenomenon of the exotic. They usually only copy the characteristic attributes, making an imitation is conditional and rather superficial.
As is known, the occurrence of any phenomenon always has a very specific reason and is intended to solve a number of social challenges. What is, from this point of view, is the meaning of youth informal associations? The main functions of the counterculture – psychological. Is raising the status of the rebellious teenager in his own eyes and attempt to get out from under parental control.
Thus, the period of stay in the conditions and the framework of the youth subculture for a teenager becomes the transition from child to adult, a meaningful perception of life. An important lesson that is absorbed in the process of immersion into the world of youth movements – the development of necessary social rules and skills.
When Faced with certain forms of behavior, the adolescent either accepts or rejects them. As a rule, the average period of rotation of a teenager in the informal environment does not exceed three years.
In addition, stay in a informal movement takes time to teenagers, it teaches them to structure their own leisure time and, ultimately, leads to greater organization.
Note that a very considerable number of young people is characteristic of the lack of clearly marked personal identity. Most of them is in the power of behavioral stereotypes, which ultimately leads adolescents into the ranks of the nonconformists. Any youth counterculture 80-90 % of fans to emulate, is not capable of upholding your own individuality.
The simplest reason of contiguity of adolescents to the representatives of the particular subculture – search for people with similar beliefs. Shocking as external attributes, compared to this secondary.
Part of the youth movements have gone in the past. As the most striking example is the hippie movement that existed in USA in the 60-ies of the last century. The scale of it was so great that in the communes of hippies have lived together thousands of young people. In no other subculture is later met such a cohabitation. On the ideas of the hippie free love was founded the sexual revolution of those years.
The Base alternative lifestyle of the currents was the emergence of a network of apartments (“flat”), where everyone could get accommodation or temporary accommodation (“fit”). For a social institution hippies characterized by the rejection of traditional values of the surrounding society, the fundamental Supervisory position, pacifism, sexual freedom and extreme austerity in life.
Another example of a vanished subculture that existed in our country, – the Lubero. The so-called representatives of youth groups of a criminal nature. They appeared initially in the Moscow region, Lyubertsy.
A Characteristic feature of such groups-orientation on healthy lifestyle in combination with “adjustment” of social reality in the years of perestroika. That expressed itself in the pursuit of “misfits” (the homeless, alcoholics, prostitutes) – they were beaten and otherwise tortured.
The appearance of lyuber talked about immediate readiness to join the fray. Often organized groups traveled to Moscow and other cities and staged slaughter, to tame which had the forces of the police.
Other examples of subculture and counterculture - more “serious”. Resemblance to the Lubero have modern radical group of extremist nature that has already fundamentally different level of organization and ideology (e.g., skinheads). Skinheads can be attributed to socially dangerous subcultures. The first representatives appeared in England in 1968, they "taught wits” relaxed hippies and drug addicts.
Clothing Style “skinheads” have developed with the need of adaptation to violent street fights: black tight pants, army boots with thick soles that help in a fight, short jacket without a collar. The clothes of skinhead was spared any detail, allowing to catch the enemy (badges, bags or glasses). With the same purpose shaved bald.
Their followers – Russian skinheads – appeared in the 90-ies of the 20th century. External attributes were copied by them from the Western "colleagues" ideology and the scope of application of the forces was based on the national issues. This subculture can be attributed to the most aggressive. Skinheads profess typical Nazi ideas, leaving no chance for dissenting voices. The ideology of the skinheads is based on the idea of racial purity. They often organized pogroms in the midst of those who are different in appearance (e.g. long hair, skin color), or representatives of other sexual orientation.
Examples of counter-culture is very diverse. Another dangerous phenomenon – the so-called Satanists. They became a separate course of movement of the metal, together with fans of the Church of Satan in the early nineties in our country. Satanic subculture now has several independent departments. This includes antichristian and distorts the Bible and practicing the opposite of the biblical commandments of the action (often – bullying and vandalism).
The Other direction – Orthodox Satanists. They say that the power of Satan on the force is equal of the power of God. They have their own rites and rituals, although sacrifice in the environment are usually not available. Developed in the direction of in Protestant countries.
There are Satanists, philosophers – they are the only one who has an organization registered officially. Their main values is pandering to their own selfish needs on the basis of the idea of Nietzsche's Superman. Other followers of this teaching is in substantial compliance with only the external trappings (ornaments with inverted cross paint hair in black color).
In the 80-ies of the 20 century in our country there was a movement called "pals". Most were on the middle Volga. Gopnik declared themselves enemies against the representatives of most of the other youthsubculture-rappers, bikers, hippies and so on. Any of the above they could be beaten and robbed.
As other, less dangerous representatives of youth subcultures can be considered football fans. In their midst made a division between fans of certain sports clubs.
Representatives of more than one stream – punks. Check them easily by its characteristic appearance: leather jackets, piercings, exotic hairstyles. On the head often adorns the classic Mohawk, or shaved.
Punks imitate beloved rock musicians, hooligans, drink, smoke weed, rarely washed, advocate the idea of anarchy. Their main slogan is: “No future”. The pessimism of punk ideology allows them to Express themselves in extreme forms of violence, abuse of alcohol and drugs. Examples of counterculture punks – most, perhaps, a characteristic of informal youth currents.
The Representatives of other subcultures unite on the basis of commitment to a certain way of life. A striking example of this – the bikers (motorcyclists). They exist in his own special world-world of motion at tremendous speeds.
But there are other examples of counterculture, for example, sphere of hip-hop. This current is of complex cultural formations. It involves dancing in a special style (breakdance or rap), graffiti art, street-ball (street football), rolling (roller skating in a certain technique).
The Growth of fans of hip-hop culture to improve the youth community. Teenagers are distracted from drugs and alcohol and began to compete in street dancing and sports. All these activities require considerable physical fitness, which is incompatible with weak health and bad habits.
Another worth mentioning for diggers. Call those who explore the underground communication. “the Inhabitants of urban caves” spend time in the mysterious the labyrinth, they are surrounded by an aura of secrecy, they do not strive for fame or to expand its own series.
Are There any positive examples of counterculture? Perhaps one of the most psychological healthy, creative and socially advantaged its representatives can be considered roleplayers. Who are they? These include people who have all the free time I devote to the recreation of a specific historical or literary era. Are reenactors, anime, and other similar community.
Their Activity takes place in the form offered by nature theatrical performances, and home or urban role-playing games. Supporters of the current regularly organize historical or reenactment festivals, are engaged in horseback riding, fencing and General physical preparation.
They Have accepted private parties for the purpose of communication and find like-minded people. Huge appeal of role-playing games lies in the possibility of withdrawal from everyday reality and the realization of creativity. In the environment of trps would be easy to wear clothing selected style (historical, medieval, Wild West style). Girls have the opportunity to choose a vintage or romantic outfit.
Among roleplayers extremely developed certain attributes, especially between the fans of Tolkien. Artwork of the fantasy genre – a kind of counterculture in the literature, providing its supporters a lot of space to play.
Still makes sense to mention the movements of the mobbers (flashmobbers). They arranged short-term interventions, organized process with the help of the Internet, which was on a specific website users are sent precise instructions about the time, place and nature of the next flash mob.
Many subcultures based on specific musical preferences. There are fans of the group “Alice”, Victor Tsoi (group “Movie”). Fans seek to emulate their favorite soloists in the smallest details of the external appearance.
A Separate over-metallers representing a widespread informal subculture. “Heavy” listening to music is now very, very many. To unite the fans of “heavy metal” on any common grounds in our days difficult, so they are different.
Some prefer music, and members of such youth movements as emo. It is believed that one of them adjoined adolescents with unstable mentality and heightened emotional state that stresses a certain clothing and characteristic make-up. An emo culture, – the Goths. It's the fans of death, of decline, they have their own special music, distinctive aesthetics, carrying a distinct theatricality.
“Dark romance” resulted in completely separate cultural period with a characteristic depressive-romantic view of existence. Classic goth withdrawn, prone to melancholy, bouts of depression. This creature, which is alien to generally accepted patterns of behavior. Most members dressed exclusively in black, the same color paint the hair, lips and nails.
To enumerate in Detail all the variety of existing subcultures is not possible. The counterculture andsubculture – two sides of a single whole. They have a lot in common and can mutually transform into each other. Classification of any counterculture and subculture is rather arbitrary, because the normal approach here is totally unacceptable. The basis of any of the counterculture – maintaining the individuality of its speakers.
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Alin Trodden - author of the article, editor
"Hi, I'm Alin Trodden. I write texts, read books, and look for impressions. And I'm not bad at telling you about it. I am always happy to participate in interesting projects."
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