The cultivation of sugar beet in the open field: terms and technology

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2018-03-17 12:15:46

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No real housewife has been able to do in the kitchen, for example, without the cabbage, carrots, onions or beets. The food value of the latter is high enough. Beetroot is rich in vitamins, macro - and microelements, and organic acids, which can improve the activity of the vessels and the heart, stomach and intestines in General. Not surprisingly, it is firmly established in the gardens of most gardeners. But in order to get a good harvest, you must know the technology of growing beets.

Requirements for the soil

As you know, planting beets starts with the choice of location and site on which it will grow. This culture grows well on loam, peat soil and loam. To ensure a good crop the area you need to prepare in the fall.

Gardeners should know that good precursors beet are the following plants:

  • Greens, grains and legumes;
  • Peppers and tomatoes;
  • Garlic and onions;
  • Cucumbers, zucchini and pumpkins.

It is not recommended to produce planting beets after:

  • Celery, parsnip and carrots;
  • Potatoes;
  • Radish and cabbage.

Very bad, this culture will grow on the land where she was raised dining room, sugar and fodder beets, and chard.

Seed Treatment

The Process of beet cultivation can be divided into several stages. The first of these is the preparation of seeds, which represent a wrinkled drupe rather large size. That is why they are easy to plant, keeping the interval between them.

Seeds, which are sold in specialized stores, often already treated with fungicides or stimulants. They are easy to recognize as they are painted in pink or green. Such seeds do not require additional processing. They begin to sow directly into well-moistened soil.

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Growing beets

Preparation of raw seed

Usually they are painted in sand or a brownish color. The cultivation of sugar beet is carried out without preliminary preparation of seeds. Before planting them you must do the following:

  • Soak the seeds in lukewarm water for a few hours. Some of them may float to the surface. Such seeds have to be thrown away, as they later germinate to form very small roots, and even irregular shapes;
  • Drain the water. Then dip the seeds, pre-wrapping them in cheesecloth, a special solution-a stimulant for germination, such as "Zircon" or "Appin". The rules on the use of these drugs specified for how long it needs to be done;
  • Take the seeds from the solution and place them in the warm for a period of 12 to 24 hours. Seeds begin to swell, and some of them and naklevyvaniya. This means that you can proceed to the next stage of beet cultivation, that is, to her landing.
    Planting seeds of table beet

Sowing seeds and thinning seedlings

It's No secret that the cultivation of sugar beet in the open field is affected by many factors, first of which is the planting time. The first shoots start to appear when heating the soil up to +5 ... +7 ⁰C, however amicable shoots should be expected only when the ground temperature will be +13 ... +16 ⁰C. Most often, the timing of planting falls somewhere in the middle of may. Make the beet planting in open beds too early should not, because getting into the wet and cold ground, most of the seeds may die, and those that ascend inevitably going to grow into an arrow.

For planting the seed, you need to prepared beds to make furrows not more than 2 cm in depth. They are very fast and convenient to lay out by the Board, the end of which is pressed into the loosened soil. The depth of planting is the same, but the groove is tight. The optimal distance between rows – 10-15 cm, if you need small tubers that will go to the cook summer dishes or marinating, and 20-30 cm for the free formation of large beetroot, intended for winter storage.

First, the grooves must be carefully watered in order not to dilute them with water, and then wait until it is absorbed. After that, begin to lay the seeds at a distance of 4 to 10 cm intervals depending on the purpose and size of any one variety of beets. Now you can fall asleep seeds ground or rotted compost and again water.

A procedure known as decimation, is best done in cloudy weather and in moist soil. The first time it is done when the plant will get one or two true leaves. In this case, you should leave 3-4 cm between seedlings. The second thinning is produced with the appearance of 4-5 leaves and roots, whose diameter is not less than 3-5 see At this time will need to leave a distance of about 6-8 cm

Weed beet

Weeding and hoeing

The First month of the beet seedlings need a lot of air. Therefore, it is necessary to take care of the air permeability of the soil, by loosening, as well as weeding during the first thinning. Then you can transplant the extra plants to another location.

To make this a relatively deep hole, and the seedling pick at with a fork, carefully transferred and lowered into her, gently straightening his spine. Then sprinkle with soil and watered. Moisten the soil you will need in the following days, as long as the seedling will not survive.

Technology of beet cultivation

Feeding

It should be carried out twice per season. The first fertilizing is carried out after thinning, because during this time the plants especially need nitrogen. However, mineral fertilizers based on it use is not worth it, because it often leads to cracking, malformation and the formation of voids in the roots. It is better to prepare the mixture yourself. To do this, take 1 tablespoon nitrophoska, 0.5 liters of mullein, 0.5 teaspoon of boric acid and dilute it all in a bucket of water. The flow rate of the mixture when watering should be 3 l/m². Boric acid for growing beet is used as a prophylactic from rot.

The Second foliar application is made before the closing of foliage. You need to prepare the following solution, which should include such components as 0.5 liters of chicken manure and 1 tablespoon of complete fertilizer diluted in a bucket of water. The flow rate of the mixture in this case should not exceed 7 l/1 m². If the development of the leaf takes place in slow motion, plants can be sprayed with urea solution – 1 tbsp. spoon in a bucket of water.

Beet

Irrigation

The Cultivation of sugar beet in the open ground is not such a difficult task. The main thing is to make sure there was no weeds and water the plants as needed. This is usually done several times per season. In hot weather watering beets have more often. Approximate water consumption – 2-3 buckets per 1 m². However, don't get too waterlogged soil, otherwise it may lead to the disease of beet and, as a result of a bad harvest.

Some growers during the irrigation mound in the water table salt at the rate of 1 tsp per ten-litre bucket. It is believed that such supplementation enhances immunity in plants, and increases the sugar content of root crops. Pour the beet stopped about two weeks before harvest.

harvest beet

Cleaning and storage of the harvest

Its quantity and quality directly depends on the conditions of beet cultivation. If you follow the above simple rules, a good harvest of root crops will be provided. The cleaned beet is recommended in dry and clear weather. Experts do not recommend to cut the tops of the plant with a knife. The fact that from the wound for a long time will ooze out the moisture that is so necessary for long-term storage of root. For the same reason, while cleaning should not damage the skin and beet.

Before the root will be omitted in the cellar for winter storage, they should be well dried in a shaded place, and then remove from them the rests of the soil. To store beets in sand, dry hole, or drawer.

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