Humanity throughout construction practice used different natural materials. For a long time the most popular were the usual clay, which has got extensive usage in the creation of various types of buildings. Adobe, or Adobe, the structure today is becoming popular not only because of the love for antiquities, but also due to practical reasons – the house of Adobe in the face of difficult economic and ecological situation as well as possible shows their own relevance.
Adobe, which is the predecessor of clay, refers to the materials of the composite type, it is composed of water, straw, sand, clay and earth.
Made from clay Adobe brick with the addition of chopped straw, used for thousands of years. It was built from conventional homes, and majestic buildings that supports the use of Adobe in the construction of the pyramids in Peru and Egypt, the creation of the great wall of China. Farm buildings and houses from this material are found in Moldavia, Turkey, Iran and other countries with hot climatic conditions, and also on Kuban and in Stavropol territory.
Not long ago Adobe building material has become popular again: the architects embody the ideas of experimental structures with the concept of the unity of civilization and nature, and ordinary citizens on their own successfully erecting green buildings. Their results differ mostly only in design, as the technology has not changed for several millennia.
Manufacturer Adobe today, as many years ago, using clay, sand, water, and organic fillers (flax shive, straw cutting). The average amount of clay in the mixture is from 4 to 20 % (with a decrease in clay reduced the shrinkage of the walls). In block form the construction of sand, clay and straw are mixed until homogenous, and then starts forming blocks in wooden form. Its inner surface must be planed and have some "headroom" for easy removal of bricks.
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As products are not subjected to roasting, but dried in the sun (for 7-11 days, depending on weather conditions), their forming begins in the spring in order to summer the required amount of material has time to dry. Finished bricks do not lose strength when nailing, it is easy chopped are squared and well sharpened axe.
Foundry construction method is characterized by laying a hand lightly caught Adobe mass on the Foundation with a shovel or pitchfork. The new layer is left for a few days to dry before the next is formed. The walls, after drying, RUB down and even sides. A characteristic feature is that held together all layers superimposed on each other in addition to bonding, the plexus of fibres straw. For this purpose, the plane of each layer is specially left rough, with protruding fibres and holes.
Perhaps the use of steel shields and shoring during construction. In this case, the mud brick is served in a box-timbering, standing in position, slightly moistened with water and compacted in small layers with rammers of wood. Clay is in the mold about 3-4 days in cloudy weather or 2 days in the sun. After she moved higher and is made as part of the walls. In each method during construction of the formed window and door openings, on top of which is mounted a steel or wooden bridge.
The House of Adobe can have any height of the walls. There are historical examples of buildings in several floors, which not only have excellent condition and are still in operation. Such construction, unlike rammed-earth variants, the walls of which are held together due to gravity, based on the three-dimensional structure of twisted straw fibers, the overall strength is provided by a large number of individual stems. The majority of houses of Adobe shall have not more than one to three floors. This house, like any building, requires a solid Foundation and sturdy roof for protection from destructive effects of water. Walls have traditional protects from rain cover in the form of a cement mortar or lime plaster.
Construction of Adobe is the most safe of all methods that use natural materials. It is made from renewable resources and non-toxic to humans, which is especially important in the current situation, strong environmental pollution and resource depletion.
Thanks to plastic abilities it is possible to create organic and architectural forms with the formation of niches, arches, curved walls - so the Builder is working with the house, like a sculpture.
Adobe brick has the lowest cost compared to other materials. For the erection of buildings there is no need to use expensive specialized equipment and labor, respectively, high energy consumption is missing.
Material capable of withstanding long periods of rain and not prone to weathering. For example, in the UK, which are characterised by high rainfall, there are a huge number of comfortable cob homes, many of them more than 500 years. And nine medieval houses built with partial use of Adobe, which can be found in Yemen, people have been living for almost 900 years. The special design and material composition capable of providing a sufficient seismic resistance.
Adobe has a larger thermal insulation properties compared with brick, stone or concrete, so for these homes do not need more heating in winter and providing cool in the summer. This is a fireproof building material that is used for the formation of flues and furnaces, which is why it is optimally suitable for homes in areas with high fire hazard.
Adobe buildings is unique, and that their performance and economic qualities deserve attention of every person who care about the ecological future of Earth.
For Adobe most difficult test becomes freezing – the main reason for the destruction and cracking of houses from the ground. But the application in cold regions is possible with the special technology and external wall insulation.
The Mud brick has not the best decorative characteristics, thus is characterized by low hydrostatically. These buildings without proper treatment in a wet climate to absorb moisture, begin to deform and crumble. To prevent such changes wall from the outer side off the usual burnt brick, and the inside protected with a vapor barrier. The house of the self-made blocks in this case, it will last much longer.
Blocks for building a house are placed in a solution of sand and clay in proportions, composed for the manufacture of the blocks themselves, without the use of straw. For the first row necessarily separation from the Foundation with waterproofing. Mesh reinforcement will strengthen the joints of the walls and corners. Point load is destructive to the material, so formed slab and beams with equal distribution of loads on the wall. Such house in accordance with all the rules will delight their owners for many years.
The Mud brick, as was noted above, consists of the following components: water, straw, sand and clay. In the construction revealed the proportions of all the components by trial and mostly depend on the qualitative characteristics of the clay. They are not found in pure form in nature and always has some amount of impurities, most often sand. The total mass add the sifted river sand is determined by the degree of fat clay.
It can be found in those places where it is extracted by builders and potters. It is possible to use soil dug from the excavation for the Foundation, if the site is characterized by clay soil type. In the clay from which you will prepare the blocks for building a house, must be free of stones, debris and impurities. When you conserve a large amount of material it can be placed under the membrane and left for maturing – its quality due to this will only increase.
Is Used in the manufacture of coarse sand, the optimum grain size is not less than 1 mm. of Adobe blocks are formed from the dust options. Sand removes roots, debris and foreign matter, then it is screened and dried.
Fits any type of straw: barley, rye or wheat, as long as it was completely dried and had no trace of damage. Fresh straw fits best.
Water is the last part of the mix, but not in importance. On the strength of brick is influenced by its purity, as the water containing acidic salts, promotes rapid destruction. The best option is water ...
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Alin Trodden - author of the article, editor
"Hi, I'm Alin Trodden. I write texts, read books, and look for impressions. And I'm not bad at telling you about it. I am always happy to participate in interesting projects."
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