Tovarovednyh characterization of raw materials: definition, characteristics and examples

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2018-03-17 19:46:00

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The commodity is the science dealing with the study of the range of consumer properties and quality of products of different groups depending on the stages of the life cycle. One of the main factors of forming the quality of the products is the raw material used. Using poor quality components, it is impossible to get a quality product.

Definition

Clear definition of "commodity research characteristics" today, no. Usually it includes consideration of issues such as chemical composition and nutritional value of certain foods, their classification and range, the factors shaping and preserving the quality of specific products, criteria, and methods for identification and detection of adulteration of products, the quality requirements of the product.

Range

The Range is a complex of species, varieties, varieties, categories, items that are combined or can be combined into a single group. Let us dwell on this concept. One of the main indicators of commodity research and the characteristics of the range are indicators, which include the coefficients of the fulness, the breadth, depth, originality, rationality. Its formation depends on the demand of buyers. The range of raw materials can provide natural ingredients that will continue to be part of the product, as well as artificial and synthetic.

tovarovednyh characterization

Inspection services

Tovarovednyh characterization includes the examination of goods, means a valuation of the goods, its consumer properties and qualities and defects. It is, as a rule, is performed according to the methods of national standards, or procedures that give comparable results with Gastromania methods.

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Any expert must know for commodity research and product characteristic. Based on this knowledge and research are identified defects in the goods, what impact these defects will have on the product, studied the causes of such defects, the degree of readiness of the goods for consumption or use.

On the basis of commodity research characteristics of the raw materials can be given a conclusion about the possibility of its use in a particular product. Organoleptic and physico-chemical quality indicators are described by commodity research characteristics. Examination of specific techniques allows you to install them.

tovarovednyh characterization examination

The following are examples of commodity research characteristics of goods and raw materials that can be used to create new products.

Nutritional value and chemical composition of vegetables

commodity research and characterization of raw materials

Vegetables in the fresh form, contain up to 98% of water (cucumbers) and 2 to 20% solids. The highest mass fraction in the last accounts for carbohydrates (20%). In addition, the vegetable contains a lot of fibre, which improves intestinal peristalsis, but a large amount which adversely affects the absorption of food, minerals and vitamins. In commodity research and the characteristics of individual vegetables provide a more detailed description.

Classification and assortment of vegetables

Vegetables divided into fresh and processed. Let us consider briefly the classification and assortment of fresh products, as an object of commodity research characteristics of the raw materials.

According to edible organs, fresh vegetables klassificeret on the autonomic,

  • Tubers - potatoes, Jerusalem artichokes;
  • Root vegetables - radish, parsnips, carrots, parsley, radishes, celery, beets, turnips;
  • Sheet - cabbage, onion, salad, spicy, rhubarb, sorrel;
  • Stem - kohlrabi, asparagus.

Generative

  • Tomato - eggplant, peppers, tomatoes;
  • Flower - globe artichoke, cauliflower;
  • Pumpkin - zucchini, watermelons, melons, squash, pumpkins;
  • Legumes - beans, peas, chickpeas, lentils.

At the time of occurrence of the vegetation period they are divided into early, medium and late maturing.

Veggies klassificeret, depending on, they grow in natural or semi-conditions on the ground and the greenhouse.

Each type is subdivided into the Botanical and commercial grade.

tovarovednyh vegetables feature

The Factors shaping and preserving the quality of vegetables

The Main characteristics shaping the quality of any goods, raw materials and technology. In the first case, the criterion may be a certain product in a certain chain. So, for vegetable raw material can be seeds or seedlings. Depending on what the germination from the planting material, what grade, what is the power of growth in plants, how they are infected with the disease, depends on the quality of future crops.

Technology for vegetables involves mainly agronomic practices: how made fertilizers, pesticides, in what quantities, were carried out irrigation of cultivated vegetables. All this affects the accumulation of nitrates, pesticides, toxic elements, which define the security is the main indicator of the quality of any goods.

The factors, keeping quality, packaging, labelling, transportation and storage. All these parameters are determined by the specific national standards for certain types of vegetables that are intended for specific purposes. In General, these products are stored at low positive temperature and relative humidity in the range of 75-80%.

Identification and quality of vegetables

The Main identify of vegetables is product identification. After all, in appearance and color to easily identify what is in front of us vegetable. The qualitative identification determine the quality of the sampling, the results of which apply to the entire party. Vegetables should be the typical shape, color, coloration, taste, smell. The surface must be dry, clean and without mechanical damage and without them from various pests.

In Addition, can determine the size by the maximum transverse diameter, the percentage of decayed, damaged by diseases of vegetables, etc. a Specific list of indicators is set for each product designed for a specific purpose defined by the national standard.

Thus, the above is a brief tovarovednyh vegetables feature. Information in this section much. There are special textbooks on the merchandising of fruits and vegetables, where it is given in more detail.

Consider another example commodity research characteristics. The object will take the meat. Seems to be a prestigious feature of this product is assumed to follow the same basic sections as that of the vegetables.

Nutritional value and chemical composition of meat

tovarovednyh characterization of meat

The Meat contains large amounts of protein from 11% in pork and 20% beef, most of which is complete, i.e., it contains the whole set of essential amino acids in ratios that are characterized by an approximate equality to the optimal one. Count and other indicators. Mass fraction of fat in different types of meat and depending on its fatness can be from 1-2% in veal, to 49% in fatty pork that is determined by gender, age, get diet and breed.

The core of this product is muscle tissue, which is mainly concentrated and complete proteins. The quality of meat will be higher, the less muscle connective tissue. Its main part is concentrated in the front part of the carcass. In recent years began to demand for marbled meat, which refers to the product with inclusions in muscle thin layers of fat, has good taste, but not recommended for people suffering from obesity.

Classification and an assortment of meats

commodity research and products characteristic

According to kind and age of animals are: beef, veal, lamb, pork and piglets, goat and other meats.

According to the thermal condition of product is classified into a chilled, ice cold.

Of fatness it is divided into:

  • Pork-fatty, edging, meat and bacon;
  • Beef;
  • Lamb;
  • Goat.

Culinary use, a flow diagram of the machining process and the amount of waste are determined by the properties of raw materials. Frozen meat should be thawed beforehand. The number of bones after butchering beef of 1 category should be 26.4 per cent, category 2-29,5%, etc.

The Factors shaping and preserving the quality of meat

The first group of factors include the species, age, breed, feeding, health status, exposure before slaughter, post-slaughter maturation, autolysis, rigor Mortis, molding, putrid decomposition, hydrolysis, oxidation fat, change of organoleptic characteristics.

The Main technological processes, influencing the quality of meat are roasting, boiling, Ambassador, grinding, drying, Smoking and others, resulting in a product that can be consumed.

The second group of factors include the conditions of transportation (refrigerated meat in a suspended, frozen in bulk), packaging, labelling and storage of meat stored at low negative temperatures up to -18OC in the freezer compartment, and cooling - at low positive temperatures, approximately 1-4OC. tovarovednyh characterization of the range AR: https://tostpost.com/ar/business/8119-tovarovednyh.html

BE: https://tostpost.com/be/b-znes/14477-tovarovednaya-haraktarystyka-syrav-ny-vyznachenne-asabl-vasc-pryklady.html

DE: https://tostpost.com/de/business/14481-tovarovednaya-eigenschaft-rohstoff-definition-eigenschaften-und-beispi.html

ES: https://tostpost.com/es/negocio/14488-tovarovednaya-caracter-stica-de-la-materia-prima-definici-n-caracter-s.html

HI: https://tostpost.com/hi/business/8123-tovarovednyh.html

JA: https://tostpost.com/ja/business/8122-tovarovednyh.html

KK: https://tostpost.com/kk/biznes/14479-tovarovednaya-shik-zatty-sipattamasy-any-tamasy-erekshel-kter-zh-ne-my.html

PL: https://tostpost.com/pl/biznes/14475-tovarovednaya-charakterystyka-surowc-w-definicja-cechy-i-przyk-ady.html

PT: https://tostpost.com/pt/neg-cios/14468-tovarovednaya-mat-ria-prima-defini-o-caracter-sticas-e-exemplos.html

TR: https://tostpost.com/tr/business/14482-tovarovednaya-zelli-i-hammadde-tan-m-zellikleri-ve-rnekler.html

UK: https://tostpost.com/uk/b-znes/14479-tovaroznavcho-harakteristika-sirovini-viznachennya-osoblivost-ta-prikl.html

ZH: https://tostpost.com/zh/business/8868-tovarovednyh.html






Alin Trodden - author of the article, editor
"Hi, I'm Alin Trodden. I write texts, read books, and look for impressions. And I'm not bad at telling you about it. I am always happy to participate in interesting projects."

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