Polishing - what is it? The essence of the process, description, types

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2020-03-25 10:20:14

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Polishing is a process by which surface metal is removed all impurities and imperfections and it returns to its original luster.

Methods of execution

Currently, you can allocate more of the following types of polishing of metal surfaces:

  • The First and most simple, and common method is polishing by hand. Most often it is prescribed when carrying out repairs on an object.
  • The Following method is more professional and is called mechanical grinding. This method is carried out using a polishing machine, which put on special polishing laps.
  • The Third method - machine. It is used on large industrial enterprises. All the operations for grinding of metal products the machine do in automatic mode.
  • The Last type is waterjet grinding carried out on special machines. This method is used only if the volume of metal products in need of treatment, is quite large. I should add that plasma and chemical-mechanical processing are carried out on the same principle.

polishing it

Tools and methods for polishing

The Process of polishing is an action that requires specific tools. Moreover, depending on the method of performing this operation varies and used inventory. Most often used the following tools:

  • Machine for polishing;
  • Sanding machine;
  • Electric sharpener;
  • Drill with a latch.

Is to provide a mechanical surface treatment method as it possesses a number of advantages. The first advantage that should be mentioned is the possibility of regulation of frequency of rotation of the car. This has a positive effect on the whole treatment process of metal surface. Polishing is a very delicate process, and therefore, for example, polishing machines can be equipped with different nozzles. The material from which made these additional items can be wool, leather, fabric.

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polishing machines

Special processing method

Buffing the surface, it is possible to carry out using combined methods. A combination of several methods of treatment is most often required when the metal surface is not prepared to work, and is characterized by a rough surface. With such deficiencies often, before the polishing, conducting a long-term electrolyte-plasma preparation. In the process of this step removed large amounts of metal.

materials for polishing

It is Worth noting that this method of processing is used in the most extreme case when you need in a very short period of time to restore the luster of the metallic coating. The disadvantages of this treatment process should include the fact that energy costs at the initial stage to 100 % higher than when treated by other methods. You can add that the polishing occurs in two stages: in the first degreased, but the second she starts grinding.

Polishing manually

Today there are various materials for polishing, which will help restore the original Shine to metal surfaces without the use of any special machines. There are three groups of such substances.

The first group includes water paste. Such substances do not contain fat in its composition, but it is quite cope with the problems of cleaning metal surfaces from contamination.

grinding and polishing

The Second group is organic matter. The composition of these pastes included paraffin as well as several different oils. In addition, such tools before use further diluted to other types of oils or fatty acids.

The Third group of diamond pastes, which are considered to be revolutionary at the present time. Funds from this category are able to quickly and effectively clean any metal surface from any contamination.

Diamond Polishing paste

The Diamond paste is very well suited, for example, for polishing machines. In order to successfully complete the operation, it is necessary to have laps and a few tubes of pasta. To get started you need to apply the paste evenly on the cloth or any other working surface of the object to be polished. When conducting practical tests it was found that to achieve greater efficiency polishing it with diamond paste in it is to add olive or castor oil. During these tests it was found that the best ratio of paste and the oil will be 40 and 60 %, respectively. After the mixture was diluted, immediately should be applied to the surface to be polished. The recommendations of the experts say that it is best to start with larger grains, and then gradually move on to the abrasive means.

chemical polishing

Grinding or polishing?

Currently, many people, when they say "grinding" and "polishing" mean the same thing. However, these two operations have several different goals, is, they denote not the same thing.

When talking about the grinding of metal surface, it is meant that the purity of the surface and its gloss will be achieved by removal of a thin layer of metal. This is most often used coarse sanding method. The element susceptible to this method of cleaning, the result will be really clean, but to see it reflected, for example, would be impossible.

polishing surface

The polishing Process removes the smallest surface irregularities, making it perfectly smooth. In the process of implementing this type of work is very small amount of metal. The result, which will give high-quality polishing, will be so brilliant that to notice the difference between it and using lapping would be virtually impossible.

Chemical Polishing method

The implementation of the chemical polishing surface is carried out by exposure of the solution on the metal. There it is combined with galvanic couples that piscivorous forms the oxide film on the surface of the product. As a result of using this method to get rid of the small asperities on the surface of the metal, to give it Shine. This happens at the same time dissolves the top layer of the element.

It is important to note that the quality of polishing with the help of this method depends greatly on the speed with which was formed the film and the speed with which it dissolves in water. The best result, the best Shine metal surface can be achieved if you achieve a minimum film thickness, and this should be enough to prevent the etching effect of the metal. To achieve such a result, it is necessary to achieve trim speed education and rinsing the oxide surface.

Electrochemical method

Electrolytic polishing is a process which reduces the surface roughness of the metal and appears bright luster. In order to realize this process, it is necessary to detail which is the anode in this situation, put it in a tub with a substance called electrolyte. Under the anode refers to the electrode which is connected to the positive pole of the current source. As for the process of polishing the second electrode, the use of cathodes made of copper, as this expenditure item.

electrochemical polishing

As the composition of the electrolyte is selected under a special scheme and the flow conditions of the entire process are also created in advance, it is possible to implement an electrochemical polishing uneven way. This allows you to dissolve first the places that are hardest. Due to this fact, to eliminate the roughness at the same time creating a perfect Shine on metal surfaces.

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