The execution of Charles 1 (30 January 1649) in London. The second Civil war in England


2018-03-17 21:45:12




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A Cold morning in January 1649 on a scaffold erected in the center of London, rose is no ordinary criminal and the king, commanding his people for twenty-four years. On this day, the country has completed the next stage of its history, and the finals it was the execution of Charles 1. In England the date of this event is not marked in the calendar, but it is forever part of its history.

the Execution of Charles 1

A Scion of the noble family of the Stuarts

Stuart – the dynasty who descended from an ancient Scottish house. Its representatives, not just taking the English and Scottish throne, as no one else has left a trace in the history of the state. Their elevation refers to the beginning of the XIV century, when Earl Walter Stewart (Steward) married daughter of king Robert I the Bruce. Hardly this marriage was preceded by a romantic story, most likely, the English monarch felt it best to strengthen that Union his connection with the Scottish aristocracy.

Carl First, about the tragic fate of which will talk in this article was one of the descendants of the honourable Earl Walter, and as he belonged to the dynasty of the Stuarts. His birth “happy” subjects in the future, on 19 November 1600, having been born in the ancient residence of the Scottish monarchs – Dunfermline Palace.

For future accession to the throne of little Carl had impeccable provenance – his father was king of Scotland James VI and mother Queen of England Anne of Denmark. However, it is spoiled elder brother Henry, Prince of Wales, born six years earlier, and therefore had the priority right to the crown.


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In General, fate was not particularly generous to Charles, of course, if this can be said about the lad from the Royal family. As a child he was a sickly child, somewhat retarded, and therefore later than his peers began to walk and talk. Even when in 1603 his father inherited the English throne and moved to London, Karl could not follow him, as court physicians feared that he will not survive this road.

It Should be noted that physical weakness and holocost accompanied him all his life. Even in formal portraits, the artists failed to give the monarch any majestic appearance. And growth of 1 Karl Stewart was only 162 centimeters.

The Path to the Royal throne

In 1612, an event occurred that determined the fate of Charles. In that year, in London outbreak of the terrible epidemic of typhoid fever, which it was impossible to escape even in the walls of the Royal castle. Fortunately he was not injured as was at that time in Scotland, but a victim of the disease was his elder brother Henry, whose birth was prepared to govern the country, and which all the highest society had high expectations.

The death of Charles opened the way to power, and barely in Westminster Abbey, where rest the ashes of Henry, ended the funeral ceremony, he was elevated to the rank of Prince of Wales-heir to the throne, and in subsequent years his life was filled with all sorts of preparations for the performance of such a high mission.

Stuart dynasty

When Charles was twenty years old, his father attended his marriage because the marriage of the heir to the throne is a matter purely political, and hymen to his shot are not allowed. Your choice James VI was stopped at the Spanish Infanta Anna. This decision caused indignation of members of Parliament, who did not want dynastic rapprochement with the Catholic government. Looking ahead, it should be noted that the future execution of Charles 1 would have a largely religious background, and such a rash choice of bride was the first step towards it.

But at that time there were no signs of trouble, and Carl went to Madrid with the desire to intervene personally in the marriage negotiations, and at the same time and look at the bride. During the trip the groom was accompanied by the favourite, or rather the lover of his father – George Villiers. According to historians, king James VI was a great and loving heart, which fits not only the ladies of the court, but they are honourable men.

To the disappointment of the English court, negotiations in Madrid stalled as the Spanish side demanded that Prince's adoption of Catholicism, and it was absolutely not acceptable. Carl and his new friend George was so hurt by the obstinacy of the Spaniards, upon returning home, demanded that Parliament severance of relations with their Royal court, and even the landing of the expeditionary force for combat operations. Who knows what would it ended, but thankfully, that moment came more compliant bride – daughter of king of France Henry IV, Henrietta Maria, became his wife, and rejected the groom calmed down.

The top

1 Carl Stuart ascended to the throne after the death of his father, followed in 1625, and from the very first days began to clash with Parliament, requiring it grants to all sorts of military adventures. Not getting the desired (the economy was bursting at the seams), and once he was dismissed, but each time was forced to convene again. In the end, the necessary funds king produced by imposing the country's population of illegal and burdensome taxes. History is replete with similar examples of short-sighted monarchs have plugged budget holes, tightening taxes.

The years have not brought improvements. His friend and favourite, George Villiers, after the death of James VI finally moved to the room of Charles, was killed soon afterwards. This bitch was dirty, for which he paid, including collecting taxes. Not having the slightest clue in the economy, the only way to replenish the Treasury of the king, always considered the new levies, fines, the introduction of various monopolies and similar measures. The execution of Charles 1, followed on the twenty-fourth year of his reign, was a worthy finale for such a policy.

Soon after the murder Villarama, from a circle of courtiers has notably allocated a certain Thomas Wentworth, who managed to do in the reign of Charles the First a brilliant career. His idea of establishing the state of absolute Royal power, based on the regular army. After he became Viceroy of Ireland, he has successfully implemented this plan, with fire and sword suppressing dissent.

The Reforms, which caused social tensions in Scotland

Carl showed the First vision and religious conflict tearing the country. The fact that the population of Scotland the majority consisted of followers of the Presbyterian and Puritan churches belonging to two of the many branches of Protestantism.

It is often served as a pretext for conflicts with representatives of the Church of England, reigning in England, and supported by the government. Not wanting to search for compromise, the king tried violent measures to establish everywhere her dominance that has caused extreme indignation of the Scots, and eventually led to bloodshed.

the Execution of Charles 1 Stuart

However, the main error, the result of which was the civil war in England, execution of Charles 1 and the ensuing political crisis, it is necessary to consider it extremely ill-conceived and poorly carried out by the policy in respect of Scotland. On this unanimously converges most researchers such a sad ending of the Board.

The Main focus of his activities was the strengthening of unlimited Royal and ecclesiastical authority. This policy was fraught with extremely negative consequences. In Scotland since ancient times, has a tradition of fixing the rights of the estates, and erected in the law, the inviolability of private property, and on them in the first place and insulted the monarch.

The short-sightedness of the Royal policy

Everything else, it should be noted that the biography of Charles 1 was tragic not so much because of its objectives, but because of the ways to implement them. His actions are usually much more straightforward and poorly designed, aroused popular indignation and contributed to the strengthening of the opposition.

In 1625, the king alienated the vast majority of the Scottish nobility, issued a decree, known in history under the name of “the Act of revocation”. According to this document, was annulled all the decrees of English kings, starting from 1540, the transfer of possession of the nobles of the land. To save them, the owners were obliged to pay to the Treasury an amount equal to the value of the land.

In addition, the same decree ordered to return the Anglican Church of its land, in the territory of Scotland, and seized from her during the period of the reformation, which established Protestantism of the country that dramatically affected the religious interests of the population. Not surprisingly, after the publication of such a provocative document the king had made numerous petitions of protest from representatives of various strata of society. However, not only is he pointedly refused to consider them, but the situation was aggravated by the introduction of new taxes.

Nomination of bishops and the abolition of the Scottish Parliament

From the first days of his reign, Charles I began to push for the highest public office of Anglican bishops. They also received the majority of seats in the Royal Council, which significantly reduced the representation of the Scottish nobility, and gave a new reason for discontent. The result of the Scottish aristocracy was removed from power and deprived of access to the king.

Fearing the growing opposition, the king, 1626, practically suspended the activities of the Parliament of Scotland, and by all measures...

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Alin Trodden - author of the article, editor
"Hi, I'm Alin Trodden. I write texts, read books, and look for impressions. And I'm not bad at telling you about it. I am always happy to participate in interesting projects."

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