The Sounds of language, patterns of merging sounds, sound combinations – all that studying phonetics. This science is the topic of a large discipline – linguistics, which explores language as such.
To make it clearer that studying phonetics, it is enough to imagine a device any language. Inside it is the important link between inner, oral and written. Phonetics – this is the science that examines these constructs. Important disciplines are orthoepy (pronunciation rules) and graph (writing).
If you put in a picture letter (sign) and its sound, you get the important tool of human speech. This is exactly what studying phonetics. In addition, it explores the financial side of pronunciation, that is, the tools people use in their speech. This so-called pronunciation the device – a collection of organs, necessary for articulation. Experts in phonetics examine the acoustic characteristics of sounds, which are indispensable for normal communication.
To understand that studying phonetics, it is also necessary to look at the history of this science. The first studies devoted to the sound system of the language, were among the ancient Greek philosophers. Device speech, was interested in Plato, Heraclitus, Aristotle and Democritus. So in the VII century BC there was a grammar, and with it –phonetic analysis and separation of sounds into consonants and vowels. It was only the background of the origin of modern science.
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During the Enlightenment, European scientists wondered about the nature of the formation of sounds. The founder of the acoustic theory of vowels was playing the German doctor Christian Kratzenstein. The fact that doctors were pioneers of phonetics, it is not really surprising. Their study of the speech wore physiological in nature. In particular doctors were interested in the nature of deaf-mutism.
In the nineteenth century, phonetics was studied already all the languages of the world. Scientists have developed a comparative-historical method for the study of linguistics. It consisted in the juxtaposition of different languages against each other. Thanks to this phonetic analysis was able to prove that different dialects have common roots. Appeared the classification of languages according to large groups and families. They are based on similarities not only in phonetics but also in grammar, vocabulary, etc.
So why you need to study phonetics? The history of its development shows that without this discipline it is difficult to understand the nature of the national language. For example, the phonetics of Russian speech for the first time have been researched by Mikhail Lomonosov.
He was a versatile scientist and more specialized in natural science. However, Russian language has always interested Lomonosov from the point of view of public speaking. The scientist was a famous rhetorician. In 1755, he wrote “Russian grammar”, which was studied the phonetic basis of the home language. In particular, the author explained the pronunciation of sounds and their nature. In his study he used the latest theories of European linguistic science.
In the eighteenth century, scientists of the Old world was acquainted with Sanskrit. This is one of the Indian languages. It is noteworthy that this dialect is one of the oldest now existing in human civilization. Sanskrit was Indo-European roots. This attracted the attention of Western researchers.
Soon with the help of phonetic research they have shown that Indian and European languages are far more common language. So there is a universal phonetics. Researchers have set a goal: to create a single alphabet, in which was captured the sounds of all world languages. International recording system of transcription appeared in the late nineteenth century. It exists and is complemented by today. It's easy to compare the most distant from each other and dissimilar languages.
A single phonetic science is divided into several sections. They all study a different aspect of the language. For example, General phonetics is concerned with the regularities that are present in the tongues of all the peoples of the world. Such surveys allow us to find their common point of reference and roots.
Descriptive phonetics captures the modern condition of each language. The object of the study is sound system. Historical phonology necessary to trace the development and “maturation” a particular language.
Of phonetics was allocated the science of orthoepy. This is a more narrow discipline. Studying phonetics and orthoepy? Scientists specializing in science, exploring the pronunciation of the words. But if phonetics deals with all aspects of the sound nature of speech, orthoepy is necessary in order to determine the correct method of play of words, etc.
This research began as a historical. Language is a kind of living organism. It develops with the people. With each new generation language gets rid of unnecessary elements, including pronunciation. So the archaisms are forgotten and replaced with the new norms. This is exactly what studying phonetics, graphics, orthoepy.
The rules of pronunciation in each language was established in different ways. For example, the unification of the Russian language occurred after the October revolution. Not only has a new orthoepic norms, but also grammar. The whole XX century of Russian linguists have carefully studied the remnants that are left in the past.
Language in the Russian Empire was very heterogeneous. Orthoepic standards in each region differed from each other. This was due to the large number of dialects. Even in Moscow there were its own dialect. Before the revolution it was considered the norm of the Russian language, but after a few generations he had changed under the influence of time.
Orthoepy exploring concepts such as intonation and stress. The more speakers, the more likely that individual groups will have their own phonetic rules. They differ from the literary standard of its own variation of the formation of grammatical phonemes. These unique phenomena are collected and sistematizirovat scientists, and then fall into a special orthoepic dictionaries.
Another important discipline of phonetics is the graphics. It is also called script. Using the established sign systems recorded data that the person wants to convey through language. First, mankind communicated only through speaking, but she had a lot of flaws. Chief among them was the inability to capture his own thoughts so that they could be stored on some physical medium (e.g. paper). The advent of writing changed this situation.
Graphics explores all aspects of this complex symbol system. What studies the science of phonetics with this close to her discipline? A combination of letters and sounds has enabled humanity to create a unified system of language, with which it communicates. The interaction of two important parts (orthoepy and graphics) each nation has its own. Linguists study them. For understanding the nature of language there is nothing more important than the phonetics and graphics. What studies specialist from the point of view of these two systems? Semantic units are the letters and sounds. They – the main objects of the study of linguistic Sciences....
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