Honey is the only ready-to-eat food product produced by insects. Moreover, it is one of the most useful products for a person, a real storehouse of health. Honey contains vitamins, minerals, essential amino acids. It strengthens the immune system and cure various diseases.
Now we're talking about the honey bee, but we know that this product and make more bees. Bumblebee honey is also very useful to humans, however, its price is much higher, and it is difficult to get. Because the life cycle of a Bumble-bee families short - from spring to autumn, and winter supplies they do not need.
I'm Sure each of us thought about how bees make honey. Let's try to understand this question.
Honey happy to regale people, and in the wild bears and other animals. But it is honey bees is not in order for us to enjoy. Bee family honey necessary for its own sustenance, and rearing. In addition, the bees body is arranged in such a way that she can't stay hungry. Her zobek must be filled with honey, or she wouldn't live more than 15 minutes.
While collecting nectar part used by the bee to maintain its own forces. But most of the honey harvested these insects for the winter. For the year bee colony eats 60-100 kg of honey, while consuming only half made product.
In order to tell how bees make honey, pre-explain some important points.
As everyone knows, bees, like ants and bees, are social insects. All members of the bee family busy with their work.
Bees that collect nectar, the field bees. Their mission is to deliver nutritious sweet liquid to the hive, where it feeds the uterus, and females, drones, larvae and other bees.
There are more bees-scouts. They overfly the area and returning to the hive, using special moves (sometimes talking about the bee dance) tell the bees where where to fly, where there are suitable flowers.
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In the hive are worker bees. They are busy feeding the larvae, building honeycombs, making honey, guarding and cleaning the hive. The worker bees are young individuals under the age of 12-15 days of age. Two weeks after transformation from larvae to full of bees, they are flying on the field.
Queen laid eggs from which the larvae develop. Of larvae a female come out of the uterus, future workers and field bees. The larvae turn into male drones.
Honey bees make from nectar. Nectar is a thick sugary liquid that accumulates at the bottom of the flower bed. As the bee makes honey from nectar? With the help of special language-tubes. They insects get nectar from various flowers: clover, dandelion, alfalfa, sunflower, mustard, buckwheat, melons and vegetable crops as well as flowering trees and shrubs.
I Must say that bees have two stomachs. One supplied food for its own saturation, while the second needs the insect for carrying the nectar. Filled with the nectar of the stomach weighs 50-70 mg, which is approximately equal to the weight of the bees.
In addition, on the hind legs bees have special baskets, and in front - brush. They are designed to collect and transfer to the hive pollen that bees pre-moistened with nectar. This processed is called pollen bee pollen.
And so, filled the field bee's stomach the nectar, what next? Then carries nectar to the hive, and then back to work, to the colors. Incidentally, once an insect visits a minimum of 1,000 flowers! Maybe this is why the people had such respect for bees. About hard-working people even say, "He's as busy as a bee".
So came the field bee to the hive. Worker bees sucked the nectar from her stomach. Then the nectar goes to feed the larvae, and another part is preparing the honey.
They Do so. Worker bees for quite a long time pass nectar through their sabiki, saturating the raw material with his saliva. This process is somewhat similar to the chewing. Enzymes of the saliva of bees break down the complex sugar composition of the nectar. On the one hand, it helps the nectar easier to digest, on the other - thus treated product is less prone to damage and more suitable for storage.
Converts the Chewed nectar worker bees on honeycomb. And not just converts, little drops of nectar "hung" on the walls of the cell. But it's not the honey. In honey it will turn when the water from the nectar (nectar because 80% consists of water) will evaporate, and the honey is ripe, reaching the desired consistency.
To evaporate the water from the future honey so he began to wander, the need to constantly "ventilate" the hive. To solve this problem, bees intensively waving their wings over the honeycomb. Beehive filled with the buzzing. If there are a lot of flowers and bees, say beekeepers, "large bribes" is the buzz continues at night. The day the bees one hive can gather up to 4.5 kg of nectar.
Besides, the hive is exposed the bees do constant cleaning of the whole accidentally fell in the garbage immediately ejected.
As the evaporation of moisture and the maturation of the bees carry the honey in the upper rows of cells. When the cell is full, it is sealed with wax. This wax is produced by special glands of bees.
Wax produced in special glands located on the lower part of the abdomen. Bees wax is a fat-like tiny thin flakes, processed by the upper jaws (mandibles). The insect rolls them into clumps, and as necessary, layer by layer, building them from the cell.
Honeycomb is a plate consisting of cells. The plate thickness is usually not more than 2.5 cm, the Total height of the SOT and other dimensions depend on the size of the hive or hollow.
Plate with cells attached in a vertical position to the ceiling of the hive. The centimeter distance between them, which beekeepers call "street" allows the bees to work each in his place, without touching the backs of each other.
The honeycombs are composed of cells. Form the majority of the cells austere hexagon. Interestingly, according to scientific studies, this form gives a high capacity content at the lowest cost building material.
The Size of cells depends on their purpose. The largest oval honeycomb cells are for drones and Queens. In the normal output of bee honey (they are deeper and are located at the edges of the plates) are stored honey reserves.
Above we talked about how bees make honey and honeycomb.
In addition to honey, the man has found application to many other waste products of bees. They are all unique and possess a range of useful medicinal properties. Including bee venom, propolis (or bee glue), pollen and pollen, wax, Royal jelly.
Let's Briefly review some of them.
Propolis is collected by bees in the form of resin with different plants. In the process of extruding resinous filament, for example, from wood cracks a bee puts to her the secrets of his own glands.
The Beginning of harvesting propolis bee family is considered to be mid-late summer, when the air in anticipation of autumn begins to cool and the bees to retain heat sealed with propolis cracks in the hive.
Collected and processed by bees, pollen is formed lactic acid that protects it from damage. The final product obtained from the pollen, called bee bread. The pollen tamped, tight stacking in the cell, and the top is filled with honey for preservation. A mixture of honey and pollen bees feed larvae.
Royal jelly is so named because it is similar to real milk and cream in consistency and in color from white to creamy-white. This product, although it is mixed by the bees with honey and pollen, the taste is something completely different and has nothing to do with the usual honey sweetness.
Royal jelly is made by bees with different saturation of nutrients and hormonal substances for feeding normal newborn larvae of Queen bees or bee. The larvae of future Queens live in Queen cells - large oval cells, filled with this product.
I Must say that the outdoors is produced by beekeepers Royal jelly is perishable, Zakia and losing useful properties. For procurement of this product requires skills and special equipment.
I could go on to talk about how and why bees make honey. But to what has been said we need only add that no laboratory in the world was able to produce a honey similar to natural, and to invent technology that replaces the bee collecting nectar.
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