Largest country in the world - the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics occupied the sixth part of the world. The area of the USSR to forty percent of Eurasia. The Soviet Union was 2.3 times larger than the US and quite a bit less of the continent of North America. The area of the USSR is a large part of the North Asia and East Europe. Approximately a quarter of the territory were in the European part of the world, the other three quarters had been laid in Asia. The main area of the USSR occupied Russia: three quarters of the entire country.
In the USSR, and now Russia, is the deepest and cleanest lake in the world - Baikal. It is the largest reservoir of fresh water created by nature, with a unique fauna and flora. No wonder since ancient times, people call this lake a sea. It is located in the heart of Asia, where the border of the Republic of Buryatia and Irkutsk region, and stretches for six hundred and twenty kilometers of the giant Crescent. The bottom of lake Baikal below sea level at 1167 metres, and the mirror above it on 456 meters. The depth of 1642 meters.
Another of Russia's lake Ladoga is the largest in Europe. It belongs to the basin of the Baltic sea (sea) and the Atlantic (ocean), North and East shore is located in the Republic of Karelia, and West, South and South-East in the Leningrad region. The area of the Ladoga lake in Europe, and the area of the USSR throughout the world, is equal to - 18 300 square kilometers.
The longest river of Europe - Volga. It is so long that the peoples who inhabited its shores, gave her different names. It flows in the European part of the country. This is one of the largest waterways on earth. In Russia, a huge part of the territory, adjoining to it, called the Volga region. Its length was 3690 km and a catchment area - 1 360 000 square kilometers. The Volga stretches four cities with a population of over a million people, Volgograd, Samara (in the USSR - Vladivostok), Kazan, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia (in the Soviet Union - Gorky).
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In the period from 30's to 80-ies of the twentieth century on the Volga built eight huge hydroelectric power plants - part of the Volga-Kama cascade. River in Western Siberia, the Ob even deeper, although slightly shorter. Starting in the Altai from the confluence of Biya and Katun, she runs across the country in the Kara sea 3,650 kilometers, and its drainage basin 2 990 000 square kilometers. In the southern part of the river is a man-made Ob sea, formed during the construction of the Novosibirsk hydroelectric power station, an amazingly beautiful place.
The Western part of the USSR occupied more than half of all of Europe. But if we take into account the entire area of the Soviet Union until the collapse of the country, the Western part was barely a quarter of the entire country. The population however was much higher: in the whole vast Eastern territories settled only twenty-eight percent of the population.
In the West, between the rivers Ural and Dnepr, the Russian Empire was born and it is here there are all preconditions for the emergence and prosperity of the Soviet Union. The area of the USSR before the collapse of the country changed several times: was joining some site, for example, Western Ukraine and Western Belarus, the Baltic States. Gradually the largest agricultural and industrial enterprises were organized in the Eastern part, due to the presence of diverse and rich mineral resources.
The Soviet Border, because our country and now, after the separation from her fourteen republics, the largest in the world, is extremely long - 62 710 kilometers. From the West, the Soviet Union stretched eastward ten thousand kilometers to ten time zones from the Kaliningrad region (Curonian spit) to the island of Ratmanov in the Bering Strait.
From the South to the North of the USSR ran five thousand kilometers from Kushka to Cape Chelyuskin. By land border had from twelve countries - six of them in Asia (Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan, Mongolia, North Korea and China), six in Europe (Finland, Norway, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania). The Maritime boundaries of the territory of the USSR was only Japan and the United States.
From the North to the South of the Soviet Union stretches for 5,000 km from Cape Chelyuskin in the Taimyr Autonomous district of the Krasnoyarsk territory to the Central Asian town of Kushka Mary of the Belorussian SSR. On land, the Soviet Union bordered 12 countries: 6 in Asia (Korea, China, Mongolia, Afghanistan, Iran and Turkey) and 6 in Europe (Romania, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Norway and Finland).
At sea, the Soviet Union bordered with two countries - USA and Japan. The country is washed by twelve seas of the Arctic, Pacific and Atlantic oceans. Thirteenth sea - Caspian, although in all respects it is the lake. That's why two-thirds of the boundaries were located at the seas, because the area of the former Soviet Union had the world's longest coastline.
In 1922, at the time of formation of the USSR, it included four republics - the Russian SFSR, the Ukrainian SSR, the Byelorussian SSR and the Transcaucasian SFSR. Next came the disengagement and Deposit options. Central Asia was formed Turkmenian and Uzbek Soviet socialist Republic (1924), the republics in the USSR became six. In 1929, located in the Autonomous Republic of the RSFSR was transformed into the Tajik SSR, which was already seven. In 1936year of Transcaucasia was divided from the Federation was divided into three Union republics: Azerbaijan, Armenian and Georgian SSR.
Then two more Central Asian Autonomous republics that were part of the Russian Federation, was separated as the Kazakh and Kyrgyz SSR. Total republics became eleven. In 1940 the Soviet Union took a few republics, and they became sixteen: the country joined the Moldavian SSR, Lithuanian SSR, Latvian SSR and Estonian SSR. In 1944 Tuva joined, but SSR Tuvan Autonomous oblast did not. The Karelo-Finnish Soviet socialist Republic (ASSR) several times changed status, so the republics became fifteen in 60-ies. In addition, there are documents showing that in 60-ies in the ranks of the Union republics asked Bulgaria, however, the request of comrade Todor Zhivkov was not satisfied.
From 1989 to 1991 in the USSR was the so-called parade of sovereignties. Six of the fifteen republics refused to join the new Federation - the Union of Soviet Sovereign Republics and declared independence (Lithuanian SSR, Latvian, Estonian, Armenian and Georgian) as well as the Moldavian SSR declared independence. With all of this, a number of Autonomous republics decided to remain part of the Union. It's Tatar, Bashkir, Chechen-Ingush (Russia), South Ossetia and Abkhazia (Georgia), Transnistria and Gagauzia (Moldova), Crimea (Ukraine).
But the collapse of the USSR has accepted landslide character, and in 1991 proclaimed the independence of almost all the Soviet republics. The Confederation also failed to create, although Russia, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan and Belarus decided to sign the agreement.
Then, Ukraine held a referendum on independence and the three republics of the founder signed the Belavezha accords on the dissolution of the Confederation by creating the CIS (Commonwealth of independent States) inter-state organizations. Of the Russian Federation, Kazakhstan and Belarus on independence is not declared and referendums are conducted. Kazakhstan, however, did it later.
Formed in February 1921 under the name of Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic. Since 1922 part of the Transcaucasian SFSR as a part of the USSR, and in December of 1936 immediately became one of the republics of the Soviet Union. Part of the Georgian SSR became the South Ossetian Autonomous oblast, Abkhaz ASSR, Adjarian ASSR. In the 70-ies in Georgia revived dissident movement under the control of Zviad Gamsakhurdia and Mirabeau Kostabi. Restructuring has brought new leaders in the Communist party of Georgia, the elections they have lost.
South Ossetia and Abkhazia declared independence, but Georgia is not satisfied, the invasion began. Russia participated in the conflict on the side of Abkhazia and South Ossetia. In 2000, between Russia and Georgia were canceled visa-free regime. In 2008 (eighth of August) there was the five-day war in which the Russian President signed decrees on the recognition of the republics of Abkhazia and South Ossetia as sovereign and independent States.
The Armenian SSR was formed in November 1920, at first, too, consisted in the Transcaucasian Federation, and in 1936 was separated and immediately became part of the USSR. Is Armenia in the South Caucasus, bordered by Georgia, Azerbaijan, Iran and Turkey. The area of Armenia is 29 800 square kilometers with a population of 2 493 000 people (population census of the USSR 1970). The capital, Yerevan, the largest city among the twenty-three (compared with 1913 when the cities were in Armenia for only three, you can imagine the volume of construction and scale development of the Republic in its Soviet tenure).
In thirty-four districts were built in addition to cities and twenty-eight new townships. The terrain is mostly mountainous, harsh, so almost half of the population lived in the Ararat valley, which is only six percent of the total territory. The density of the population everywhere is very large - by 83.7 people per square kilometer, while in the Ararat valley, with up to four hundred people. In the USSR the majority of the tightness was only in Moldova. Also the favorable climatic and geographical conditions attracted people to the shores of lake Sevan and Shirak valley. Sixteen percent of the Republic's territory a permanent population is not covered at all, because at heights of more than 2500 above sea level for a long time can not live. After the collapse of the Armenian SSR as free Armenia has experienced several very heavy ("dark") years of the blockade by Azerbaijan and Turkey, the confrontation with which has a long history.
The Belarusian SSR was located in the West of the European part of the USSR, bordered with Poland. The area of the Republic is 207 600 square kilometers with a population of 9 371 000 people in January 1976. Ethnic composition according to the census of 1970: 7 290 000 Belarusians, the rest is shared Russians, poles, Ukrainians, Jews and a very small number of people of other nationalities.
Density 45.1 people per square kilometer. The largest cities: the capital - Minsk (1 189 000 inhabitants), Gomel, Mogilev, Vitebsk, Grodno, Bobruisk, Baranovichi, Brest, Borisov, Orsha. In Soviet times, new city: Soligorsk, Zhodino, Novopolotsk, Svetlogorsk, and many others. In total ninety-six towns and one hundred and nine urban-type settlements.
Nature mostlyplain type, in the North-West stretches the morainic hills (Belarusian ridge), South by the swamps of the Belarusian Polesie. Many rivers, the main - Dnieper Pripyat and Sozh, Neman, Zapadnaya Dvina. In addition, there are more than eleven thousand lakes. The forest covers one third of the territory, mostly conifers.
Soviet power was established in Belarus almost immediately after the October Revolution, which was followed by the occupation: first German (1918), then Polish (1919-1920). In 1922, the BSSR was part of the USSR, and in 1939 had reunited with the West Belarus, annexed by Poland in connection with the contract. Socialist society of the Republic in 1941, fully rose to fight with the fascist-German invaders: in all areas there were guerrilla groups (there were 1255, almost four hundred thousand people participated in them). Since 1945, Belarus is the UN.
Communist construction after the war was very successful. The Byelorussian SSR was awarded two orders of Lenin, order of Friendship of peoples and the October Revolution. From the agricultural poor of the country Belarus has become a prosperous and industrial, who established close ties with the other Soviet republics. In 1975 the level of industrial output exceeded the 1940 level by twenty-one times, and the level of 1913 - one hundred and sixty-six. Developing heavy industry, mechanical engineering. Built power plants: Berezovskaya, Lukoml, Vasilevichi, Smolevichi. Peat fuel industry (the oldest in the industry) has grown in oil producing and refining.
The engineering to the seventies of the twentieth century was represented by machine tools, tractors (tractor "Belarus"), autostructure (giant BelAZ, for example), electronics. Developed and strengthened chemical industry, food, light. Living standards in the Republic increased steadily in the ten years from 1966, the national income increased two and a half times, and real income per capita almost doubled. Retail sales of cooperative and state trade (with public power) was more than ten times.
In 1975, the amount of deposits in savings banks reached almost three and a half billion roubles (in 1940 there were seventeen million). The Republic was formed, moreover, education is still not changed, as the Soviet standard, it is not moved. The world appreciated such loyalty to the principles of: the colleges and universities of the country attract a huge number of foreign students. It uses two equivalent language: Belarusian and Russian.
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