The Specific methodology of any science is revealed through certain principles. The pedagogy is anthropological, holistic, The personality, activity and culturological approaches. Consider their features.
The Principle of integrity has arisen in contrast to the functional approach, whereby the study of some aspect of the educational process, regardless of changes in the process as a whole and the individual participating in it.
The Essence of the functional approach is that it is carried out studying of pedagogy as a system with a definite structure. Each link implements its functions in the solution of the problem. The motion of each element obeys the laws of motion of the whole system.
A holistic approach derives personal. Through it affirms the idea of the creative, active, social nature of the individual.
For mastering cultural achievements, according to A. N. Leontiev, each subsequent generation must undertake activities similar, but not identical to that carried out previously.
To fix the stages of development of society uses the concept of "civilization". This term is used quite frequently in journalism and science today. The study of history on the basis of this concept is called civilizational approach. In its framework there are two key theories: the universal and local civilizations.
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Analysis of the society from the perspective of the first theory is very close to the formational approach. Formation is called the type of society that emerged on the basis of a specific mode of production of material goods.
A Key role in the formation belongs to basis. They called the complex economic relationships that develop between individuals in the process of creation, distribution, consumption and exchange of goods. The second key element of the formation is an add-on. It is a set of legal, religious, political and other views, institutions, and relations.
Formation approach cultural the principle of the study of human development is characterized by the presence of three interrelated aspects: axiological (values), personal-creative, technological. He is represented as a set of methodological principles through which the analysis of all areas of mental and social life of the individual through the prism of specific strategic concepts.
Cultural approach for each operation defines its own criteria, bases, evaluating (standards, norms, etc.), and methods of evaluation.
The Axiological aspect involves organizing the teaching process so that learning occurred and the formation of value orientations of each individual. Under the orientations understand the formation of moral consciousness, its basic ideas, benefits, coordinated in a certain way, expressing the essence of the moral meaning of life, as well as in indirect terms of the most common cultural and historical perspectives and conditions.
It is associated with the understanding of culture as ways of implementation. The concept of "activities" and "culture" are interrelated. To determine the adequacy of the development of culture is enough to trace the development and evolution of human activities, integration, differentiation.
Culture, in turn, can be considered a universal property activities. It forms the socio-humanistic program, determines the direction of a particular activity, its results and features.
It is caused by the presence of objective links between culture and the particular individual. Person is a carrier of culture. The development of the individual occurs not only on the basis of his objectified essence. People are always making culture something new, becoming thus the subject of historical creation. In this regard, in the framework of a personal and creative aspect of the development of culture must be seen as a process of changing the individual, his development as a creative personality.
Is generally considered to be the assertion that cultural studies involves the study of the human world in its cultural existence. The analysis allows us to determine the meaning, which filled the world for a particular individual.
Culturological approach in education involves the study of the phenomenon of culture as a pivotal element in the explanation and understanding of the man himself, his life and consciousness. Based on this, different aspects of the nature of the individual are understood in their "hierarchical pairing". Speech, in particular, about identity, morality, spirituality, and creativity.
Studies cultural studies approach focuses on the vision of a man through the prism of the concept of culture. As a result the person is considered as active, free personality, capable ofto self-determination when dealing with other personalities and cultures.
To explore the application of a substantial part of the cultural approach to the educational process, of particular importance is the notion that culture is mostly considered as an anthropological phenomenon. In essence it acts as the self-realization of man, unfolded in time. The basis of culture is "newcontent" people in nature. In humans, there is need to realize the motive, not instinctive. Culture acts as the product of the open nature of man is not completely fixed.
The use of culturological approach to the study of the history of mankind values are considered as the factors determining the culture from the inside, from the depths of the social and personal life. They act as the core culture of the society in General and man in particular.
Culture, representing an anthropological phenomenon, is determined through the resulting value relationships. It is expressed in the set of accumulated results, and in man's relation to himself, society, nature.
According to some Authors, a cultural approach provides a review of values as expressions of the human dimension of culture. It implements attitude to different forms of being. This opinion, in particular, holds Gurevich.
On a personal level abstract axiological content of element Cultural approach is manifested in the ability of the individual to evaluate and select, in the hope of realizing the expectations of existing rights in the system of value orientations and views. This raises the problem of the relation between the benefits of acting real driving force and the declared benefits.
Any universally valid value becomes a valid value only in a personal context.
According to the Cultural approach to history of mankind the absorption of values takes place through the internal experiences of each individual. Moral norms can be perceived, if they are experienced and accepted by the person on an emotional level, and not only understood rationally.
The Individual takes possession of the values themselves. He does not assimilate them into finished form. Introduction to cultural values – the essence of the educational process as man-made cultural practices.
The Ability to act as a way the activity is considered the fundamental hallmark of culture. This property is in a concentrated form reflects its essence, integrates other characteristics.
Recognizing the close link between culture and activity, justifying the need to disclose the past through its dynamic components, representatives of the Active-cultural approach Performed its analysis in two key areas.
To supporters of the first concept relates Bueva, Zhdanov, D., Polikarpov, Hanova, etc. as a subject of study, they determine the issues of the common characteristics of culture as a particular universal properties of social life. While it appears as:
The other school of thought put emphasis on the personal and creative nature of culture. Including Kogan, Baller, Zlobin, Mezhuev, etc.
The Personal-creative component is considered in the framework of the Cultural approach through the prism of spiritual production, development, functioning of the individual.
The Peculiarity of this theory is that culture is considered as a set of qualities and properties that characterize the person in the first place as a universal subject of social and historical process of creation.
Supporters of the technology component of the Cultural approach Understand the position that the operation itself has a social character. This position is confirmed by the different conclusions, including that culture is a "way way". Such "non-technological" sense expresses a higher level of a spiritual community and subject-transforming activities.
Meanwhile, feature the technologically-activity aspect would be incomplete, if not revealed its cognitive capabilities. Under any concept the object can be viewed from a specific angle, which does not give full representation about it.
The Cognitive capabilities and limits of the activity concept defines the main functional understanding of the concept "culture".
In the 70-ies of the last century established a personal-creative concept. Its essence is that the basis of the understanding of the phenomenon of culture is established historically active creative activity of a person. Accordingly, inthe creative process is the development of the individual as subject of activity. With him, in turn, coincides and cultural development.
L. N. Kogan had emphasized the ability of the culture to realize the essential power of the individual. The author attributed to the cultural sphere, the activities in which the individual reveals itself, "predmatchevoe" their hand in the products of this activity. Supporters of the personal and creative aspect of defined culture as human actions committed in the past and do in the present. It is based on the development of the results of creation.
In the framework of this concept in the analysis of human activities assess the level of compliance with its objectives of development, self-realization, self-improvement of man. The accent is thus done on a personal, developmental, humanistic essence of culture.
When using the cultural approach the learning of culture can be interpreted as a process of individual discovery, creativity, and the creation of the world in person, participate in cultural exchange. All these processes cause the individual personal actualization of the meanings inherent in the culture.
The Cultural studies approach provides the formation of a humanistic position, in which the individual is recognized as a key figure in the development. Focuses on the individual as the subject of culture, with the capacity to accommodate all its previous meanings and simultaneously create a new one.
This forms three interdependent fields:
The Cultural studies approach can be applied in the context of pedagogical, philosophical, psychological, cultural anthropology, depending on the purpose of the study.
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