The popular movement in the 17th century in Russia was a mass phenomena. The time of Troubles ended. All spheres of public life was completely destroyed: economy, politics, social relations, culture, spiritual development. Naturally, it was necessary to restore the economy. Many reforms and innovations hurt the population of that time. As a consequence – the people's movement. Will try a more detailed examination of this topic.
The Period ‘buntashny century” included in the mandatory school minimum. Course “history” (grade 7, “National traffic”) identifies the following causes of social turmoil:
The Above causes give reason to believe that the popular movement in the 17th century are connected not only with the peasantry, as it was previously, but also with other social classes: the clergy, the Cossacks, archers.
That means against the government start to act as powerful forces that know how to wield weapons. Cossacks and archers managed to gain combat experience in constant wars. Therefore, their participation in the disturbances in scale can be compared to civil wars.
I would like to recall today's retirees who actively monitor the prices of salt in stores. An increase of one or two of the ruble today is accompanied by various accusations and criticism of the authorities. However, the rise of salt in the seventeenth century provoked a riot.
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1 Jul 1648 broke out a powerful wave of protest. The reason was the additional duty on salt, by which the government decided to Supplement the budget. The situation has led to protesters “caught” the Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich during the return from the prayer to the Kremlin. People complained «the good king" action "bad" nobleman – the head of Zemsky prikaz L. S. Pleshcheev. In the eyes of an ordinary citizen he alone was to blame for all the ills of the state: the writ red tape, embezzlement of public funds, increase of prices not only for salt but also for other food products.
The“Bad” boyar had to sacrifice. “Under the guise of" the king escaped not only from the “villain” pleshcheeva, but from his kinsman, boyar Boris Morozov, his mentor. In fact, he was “secret cardinal” in the country and decided almost all the administrative issues. However, after the people's movement in the country is not over. Let's move more to the others.
The Situation with salt is not taught the government to take a cautious approach to reform. Money in the country lacked. And then the authorities conducted the “killer” economic reform, which could only come up with – the devaluation of the coins.
The Government, instead of the silver money coined copper coins that 10-15 was cheaper. Of course, you could think of wooden (in the literal sense of the word) rubles, but the authorities did not dare so to tempt fate. Of course, merchants had ceased to sell the copper for their products.
In July 1662 massacre and riots. Now people do not believe in “the good king". The massacres were subjected to the estates of almost all the Royal entourage. The crowd wanted to defeat even the residence of the "anointed" in the village of Kolomenskoye. However, the time the troops arrived, and the king went to the negotiations.
After these events, the authorities cruelly treated by the rebels. Many people were executed, arrested, some were cut off hands, feet, tongues. Those who were lucky, were sent into exile.
If the previous people's movement was organized peaceful unarmed population, the uprising of Stepan Razin participated armed with combat experience Cossacks. And it turned into a more serious problem for the state.
The fault were the Sobornoe ulozhenie of 1649. This document was finally established serfdom. Of course, it is beginning to take shape from the time of Ivan III, with the introduction of St. George's day and the attachment of workers to the lands of the feudal lords. However, the sobornoye ulozheniye set life hunt for fugitive peasants and return to their former owners. This provision was at odds with the Cossack liberties. There was centuries of rule by “from the river don’, which involves the protection of all who could get there.
By the mid 60-ies of the XVII century, don has accumulated a huge amount of fugitive peasants. This led to the following consequences:
All this, of course, could not result in a popular movement
The First phase of the uprising of peasants and Cossacks under the leadership of S. Razin went down in history as “the campaign for his coat”, that is, production (1667-1669.). The aim of the campaign was looting trade ships and caravans carrying goods from Russia to Persia. In fact, the squad Razin was a pirate gang that blocked the main shopping artery on the Volga, captured the ancient town, was victorious over the Persian fleet, and then returned in 1669 with a rich booty to the don.
This successful and unpunished campaign has inspired many other Cossacks and the peasants, who were suffocated by poverty. They massively reached out to S. Razin. Now originated the idea of revolution in the country. S. Razin announced the March on Moscow.
In fact, the speech of S. Razin, the future resembles the peasant war led by E. Pugachev. Broad social layers, large number, participated in the national conflict with the local tribes talking about full-scale civil war. In General, national history (the people's movement in particular) have never seen such mass protests of their own people before that time.
The Rebels immediately took the city of Tsaritsyn. Approached a well-fortified fortress of Astrakhan, which then surrendered without a fight. All the governors and nobles were executed.
Success has provoked a massive shift to the side of Razin larger cities such as Samara, Saratov, Penza, which speaks of a serious political crisis within the Russian society. In addition to the Russian population, he attracted the peoples of the Volga region: Chuvash, Tatar, Mordva, Mari and others.
The Total number of rebels reached 200 thousand people. Reasons to Razin reached thousands several: some are tired of poverty, taxes, others were attracted by the status of “free Cossacks", others were criminals. Many minorities wanted autonomy or even independence after the victory of the revolution.
However, the goals of the rebels was not to be. Not having organizational unity, common goals, the army was out of control. In September 1670, she tried to take Simbirsk (modern Ulyanovsk), but failed, and then began to disintegrate.
The Main population, led by S. Razin went to the don, many fled to inner regions. Against the rise of a punitive expedition was headed by the voivode Prince Yuri Baryatinsky, which actually means the use of all available military forces. Fearing for their lives, the rebels gave their leader, which is then drawn and quartered.
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