Probably many of today's travelers at least once in their life wondered what is the height of the Sayan mountains. Why is this information useful? As a rule, is several explanations, the most important of which can be considered a normal curiosity and an uncontrollable desire to visit all possible high points if not the planet as a whole, our country at least.
This article aims to tell you about this amazing geographical area of our country, as the Sayan mountains. The reader learns a lot of useful information about this area of our rightly say, vast country.
The Sayan mountains, photos of which can be found in almost any guide to the regions of the Russian Federation, consist of two interlocking mountain ranges, located in southern Siberia in the limits of the Irkutsk region, the Krasnoyarsk territory, Republics of Tyva, Khakassia and Buryatia, as well as the Northern regions of Mongolia, bordering on the Republics of Tuva and Buryatia.
The Mountain is divided geographically into Western and Eastern Sayan, each of which has a number of own distinctive features.
For Example, the Western part is aligned and peaked ridges without glaciation, which are located between the intermountain basin. For the Eastern part of the typical mountain peaks with glaciers.
The Sayan mountains have many rivers belonging to the basin of the Yenisei river.
The Slopes are covered with mountain taiga forest into Alpine tundra. Between the mountain systems is the multitude of depressions of various shapes and depths. One of the most famous – Minusinsk basin, having a large number of archaeological sites. In General it can be noted that the average amplitude of elevation of the Eastern Sayan mountains is significantly different from the identical amount of Western ranges.
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Scientists say that the name of these places were named after the same name of the Turkic tribe that lived in Siberia, in the upper reaches of the Yenisei and Oka.
Later Sayan has teamed up with other mountain tribes and became part of the peoples Republic of Tyva. The ethnic group belonged to the Samoyedic tribes, and was called the mountain “Kahmen”, while the Buryats gave them more challenging to the ear of modern man the name “Sardyk”.
About this tribe in their Chronicles told Russian Cossacks Tyumenets and Petrov, who was in 1615, in the ancestral lands of the Altyn-Khan. In the future, in the records of Russian travellers of the mountain appeared to be called the Sayan, the highest point of which, as was established later, is 3491 m.
Not to mention that from a geological point of view this is a relatively young mountains, which, according to scientists appeared about 400 million years ago.
They are Formed from ancient rocks, including volcanic origin. Before the formation of the mountain system, there was the ocean, as evidenced by the remains found fossilized algae.
The Formation of mountain relief was influenced by the climate. In the period of the ancient glaciation of the mountains were covered with glaciers, which, moving, have changed the earth's surface, forming jagged peaks and gorges with steep slopes. After warming the glaciers melted, filling numerous hollows and depressions of the terrain – there are glacial lakes.
Many people think that the height of the Sayan mountains is not significant, and therefore deserves special attention. Let's check if this is in fact, a closer look at their geographical features.
In General, this elevation is a continuation of the Altai mountain system that serves as a border between China and Russia.
The Mountain is composed of parallel mountain chains of interconnected nodes. With the Altai Sayan mountain system is associated with a range of Cabin-Davana. To the North and North-West extends Koltanowski ridge, which abuts on Itemskill ridge, stretching East to South-West from a tributary of the Yenisei. In the South Koltanowski ridge connects with the foothills of Amiture. Eastward of the ridge of Sabin-Davana Sayan mountains are divided into two chains. North Sayan known as CSD-Taiga, and South – Thun-the Taiga.
From the Northern Sayan mountains in the upper reaches of the river Sosnovka and Kisin-su leaves the mountain spur separating the Kantegir river and the Yenisei. Further, through the Enisey Sayan mountains go by several chains to the North-East.
The Majestic Siberian river Yenisey runs through the mountain ranges of the range called the Western Sayan mountains, forming many rapids.
On the right Bank of the Yenisei mountain smoothly into the steppes of the Minusinsk district. Parallel circuit Saiyan are named differently. The Yenisei is closely adjacent Kyzylkumskiy ridge, creating a narrow passage with a powerful waterfall called the Grand threshold. Then it runs between the rivers kyzyr-Bitch and a Big OI to the shores of the Yenisei river, where Biryusinskaya circuit is lowered to a height of 1600 feet.
In Addition to the two branches of the Sayan mountains are a mountain ridge, dividing the river of Kazyr Zone. Further Agul spur out to the North and North-West and separates rivers Tagul and Agul.
The power of the stone blocks,abutting almost to the sky, always become the object of inspiration and a certain respect from inhabiting these regions peoples. That is why in the folklore of the locals, you can meet so many legends on this subject. Look at some of them.
In ancient times the heavenly deity sent to earth his son Geser to fight the evil. In those days, all the gods and heroes lived in the mountains, and the hut throne was on the highest mountain. Heavenly hero cleansed the world from injustice and beasts, made a lot of feats. His warriors were petrified and turned into mountains. Now they are called the Sayan, and the highest of them, where his throne was, – Munch-Sardyk. Peaks of the Sayan mountains have ancient names and shrouded in myths. Many of them built of stones and timber of the so-called “about”, or place of worship and sacrifice to the gods.
Overall, the USA – the mythological hero, who is worshiped by almost all the peoples of Central Asia. The legend of this deity contains multiple story cycles, and has about 22 000 lines. The study of epic going on for a hundred years, but until now, no authentic data. Some believe that Geser is a fictional character, while others are of the opinion that the epic is devoted to Genghis Khan. It is also possible that Geser means the Rome translated title "Caesar" (Caesar). Geseriada considers the Buryat version of the epic appeared before his birth. But most are inclined to believe that the legend about Geser narrate the life of a military leader, who lived in XI-XII centuries.
The Ancestors of modern Tuva is Turkic Soyot tribe that lived in the past in the mountains in the upper reaches of the rivers Yenisei and Oka. According to the ethnographers, “Soyot” refers to the plural of the word “Solon” and therefore this tribe was also called Ayanami. Later the word evolved to Sayan. The tribe called the mountain “Kahmen” that meant “heavenly obstacles». Buryats these mountains are called “Sardyk”, which means "char”.
For the First time about the Sayan mountains was announced by Russian Cossacks Petrov and resident of Tyumen, who visited in 1615 near Altyn Khan. First conqueror Saiyan was Commissioner Pesterov checking the border line in the mountains and in charge of border posts and signs in 1778-1780, he Studies Saiyan began in the nineteenth century.
The Western Sayan has a folded structure and is part of the Caledonian belt of Paleozoic Altai-Sayan region. He stretches from South-West to North-East in the form of an ellipse, which from all sides by faults. The internal structure caused by complex epithelial-latter type of structure.
If you discover such a complex and multifaceted issue as the height of Saiyan, not to mention that the mountain system of the Western part is divided into several tectonic zones (North-Sayan, Tsentralnosibirsky, Brouskou and Kutusovsky). In the North-Sayan belt include volcanogenic-sedimentary deposits of the Vendian-Cambrian connection ophiolitic rocks in the melange zones.
For island-arc processes during and boruss zones typical lower Paleozoic quartzite and dolerite and clay-siliceous schists and ultrabasites. These rocks are a complex tectono-sedimentary mixtures. Tsentralnosibirsky belt consists of a complex of volcanogenic-flysch formations of early Paleozoic granite with numerous layers. This belt is characterized by tectonic clusters and irregular changes of sedimentary rocks. Also sometimes distinguish Cabasso area with older (key words: Riphean) origin located along the Northern part of Western Sayan. It is dominated by altered volcanic-flysch deposits.
The Eastern Sayan mountains are divided according to age. The North-Eastern part, adjoining on the South-West to the Siberian platform, refers to the most ancient (Precambrian) type, and the southwest – to a younger (Caledonian) type. The first consists of altered Precambrian rocks, including the ancient gneisses and amphibolites. Central Derbinskogo anticlinorium has a structure of younger rocks – schists, marble and amphibolites. The South-Western part Saiyan is composed of volcanogenic-sedimentary rocks. On the North and West of the Eastern Sayan orogenic basin formed, consisting of volcanogenic terrigenous rocks.
Considering in more detail such a thing as height, Sayan impossible to imagine how the whole geological object. Why? The fact that its Eastern part is longer and higher than the Western. For example, the peak of the first part rises above sea level at 3491 meters (the highest point of Sayan mountains – Munch-Sardyk), while the second - only on 3121 M. and the Eastern length of nearly 400 km more than the Western.
However, despite these differences, the value and importance of this array to our economy can hardly be overestimated. The fact that the number of useful species occurring in their strata, is truly impressive.
In the Western Sayan mountains there are deposits of iron, copper, gold, chrysotile asbestos, molybdenum and tungsten ores. The main wealth of the mountain depths – iron and chrysotile asbestos. Iron ore refers to the hydrothermal-metasomatic type associated withgabbroids and granitoids of the increased basicity. Chrysotile asbestos is associated with lower Cambrian hyperbasites.
The Eastern Sayan, which has dominated the known deposits of gold, iron, aluminum, titanium ore and other rare metals, graphite, mica and magnesite. Deposits of iron represented by ferruginous quartzite, volcanogenic-sedimentary hematite-magnetite and magnetite ores. Presented by the aluminum ore bauxite, and urticari kalimantanensis Proterozoic schists. To agrorum are secondary phosphates. There are also small deposits of contact metasomatic phlogopite and Muscovite pegmatite. Found in the region stocks of quartz, graphite, jade, chrysotile asbestos, limestone and construction materials.
This area stretches North-East to the Eastern Sayan, from the source of the river Maly Abakan to the upper reaches of the Kazyr and UDA. The highest point is the mountain Kyzyl-Taiga (3120 m), which is part of the Watershed Sayan mountains.
The mountain terrain is characterized by Alpine terrain with steep slopes and extensive stone fields. Mountain peaks in the West reach heights of up to 3000 m, to the East they are reduced to 2000 m. the foot of the slopes covered with pine-deciduous forests above the pass in the dark taiga.
The Upper tiers at an altitude of 2000 m is mountain taiga with glacial lakes, moraines and punishments. On the territory of the Western Sayan is the Sayano-Shushenskaya reserve.
The Vertices of this area is covered with unmelted snow. The highest point of the Eastern Sayan and Sayan mountains themselves, as mentioned above, is mount Munku-Sardyk (3490 m), which is adjacent to the Oka plateau. The plain is here covered with Alpine meadows, deciduous forests and mountain tundra, also occur in desert rocky areas. In the Central part formed by a unit of several mountain ranges, its highest peak (peak a Grand) has a height of 2980 meters.
Topographers Peak (3044 m) refers to the second largest peak. The main glaciers located in the area of the main peaks. In addition, in the Eastern Sayan has a ‘valley of the volcanoes" with traces of volcanic activity, which is a volcanic plateau. The last emission of lava was about 8,000 years ago. In East Sayan mountains is world famous for the nature reserve “Pillars”.
Taking into consideration all the above facts, it is not surprising that the height of the Sayan mountains attracts such a huge number of travelers from different corners of the globe. Everyone wants to feel a part of something huge and vast.
However, attracts not only the height, Sayan taiga have a unique landscape with glacial lakes, waterfalls and rivers, creating a unique scenery.
The Most remote and desolate area of the mountains are considered as the Central Sayan (Tofalaria). In the taiga of the West Sayan hid the natural ‘Stone town", where the rocks resemble the ruins of ancient castles and fortresses. Eastern Sayan is known to Shumak mineral springs and ‘valley of volcanoes”.
A Particularly beautiful area of Munku-Sardyk with Oka plateau in July, when the mountains are covered with a colored carpet of poppies, rhododendrons, Edelweiss, Golden root and other plants. There are many gorges, rivers, lakes and streams are inhabited by deer and musk deer. Nature Munch-Sardica almost untouched by man. The ridge is located on the border between Russia and Mongolia and a visit to this area is possible only with a permission from the border guard service, otherwise the height of the Sayan mountains can cast a spell only on the surface.
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