Bone marrow transplant: what is, donors, effects, reviews

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2018-03-17 19:20:11

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Bone marrow Transplantation-a complex procedure implantation of stem cells, the need for which is one of a number of diseases of the hemopoietic system. Bone marrow – it is a vital organ of the circulatory system, which performs the function of hematopoiesis.

No surgery for a bone marrow transplant, it is impossible to help patients with serious failure of the immune system. Most often, the need for transplantation occurs when the cancer and blood diseases.

Malignant lesions

Most Often, an urgent operation accepted in leukemia (leukemia). The people by this terrible disease, leaving almost no chance the patient for recovery, is called leukemia. The pathology is characterized by the violation of process of formation and renewal of blood cells, not having time to Mature, will immediately begin to share. Further stages of development does not occur. When the number of immature cells exceeds the maximum allowable, they displace healthy cells. Leukemia can occur in as:

  • Acute myeloblastic type;
  • Acute lymphocytic type;
  • Chronic myeloid leukemia;
  • Plasmacytoma.

Transplantation of healthy cells is required for lymphoma-pathology of the blood, which is characterized by accumulation of neoplastic lymphocytes. A type of lymphoma is Hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin's types of illness.

bone marrow transplant effects

Other diseases as indications for transplantation

In benign pathological processes, bone marrow transplant may be recommended because of the high risk of getting the disease in a malignant form. To diseases of non-oncological nature, for the treatment which is resorted to for use of donor biomaterial include:

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  • The Diseases associated with metabolic disorders. In the first place is the hunter syndrome and adrenoleukodystrophy. The last disease is characterized by excessive concentration of fatty acids in cells. Hunter syndrome – a pathology, in which there is abnormal accumulation of fats, proteins and carbohydrates in the tissues.
  • Immune disorders. First of all we are talking about HIV infection and congenital immunodeficiency. This method of treatment can not give an absolute guarantee of recovery, but helps extend a patient's life.
  • Pathology of the bone marrow (Fanconi anemia, aplastic anemia) that occur with inhibition of hematopoietic function.
  • Autoimmune diseases, among them lupus, rheumatoid arthritis. The specificity of these diseases is the connective tissue and small blood vessels.

Not so long ago the only method of treatment of the above pathologies were considered as the radiation and chemo. However, each of these methods of struggle with cancer is helping to destroy not only cancer cells but also healthy. Today tactics treatment of diseases of the blood takes a different turn: after the course of intensive cancer therapy affected hematopoietic Taurus replaced when transplanting healthy.

Who can act as a donor

To conduct this type of surgery requires the voluntary consent of the human genetic material which is entirely suited to the needy recipient. Judging by the reviews, bone marrow transplantation and delivery of our stem cell patients people think about often, but many are afraid of ignorance and ignorance of the likely consequences of such a complex manipulation.

surgery bone marrow transplant

To Obtain material for transplantation, blood cells can:

  • From the patient during remission of the disease. If the symptoms subsided and performance tests conform to the norm, the patient withdraws tissues that hooked him at relapse. Such transplant is called autologous.
  • From its twin (identical). This type of transplant is called syngeneic.
  • From a blood relative. It should be noted that not all the people who are in relationship with the recipient, may be suitable for the role of the bone marrow donor due to differences in the genetic code. Often the biological material is the same brothers and sisters – the probability is approximately 25%. It is almost never found genetically compatible with their parents. Engraftment of stem cells from a relative is called allogeneic.
  • From another (unrelated) person. If Rodney could not find a person with the appropriate genetic data, help address to national or foreign banks of the donation. We are talking about allogeneic transplantation of tissues of a stranger donor.

The Main contraindications for donors

It sometimes Happens that a person willing to donate their tissue for the sake of another, is not allowed to transplantation. To potential donors put forward a number of requirements, in case of discrepancy between at least one of them is a request for donation denied. First and foremost, to provide their stem cells can only be an adult person. Donor bone marrow transplantation should be absolutely healthy. Especially important is the absence of these conditions:

  • Autoimmune disorders
  • Severe infectious disease;
  • Hepatitis B and C;
  • Syphilis;
  • Tuberculosis.
  • Congenital or acquired immunodeficiency;
  • Any type of cancer;
  • Mental disorders.

The Donor can not be a pregnant woman. Sampling of biological material is not performed in people older than 50 years.

No chance for a transplant

By the way, the replacement of stem cells is also not recommended for the physically weak and elderly patients. Transplantation is not carried out persons suffering from complicated diseases of internal organs. Contraindications bone marrow transplant include the holding of long-lasting antibacterial or hormonal therapy.

And even with the excellent health of the donor and recipient are the only serious obstacle to the procedure is the incompatibility of the biomaterial. The chances of finding a donor, perfect for a bone marrow transplant, is negligible. Often resort to autologous and allogeneic method of grafting.

bone marrow transplant testimonials

Transplant Surgery bone marrow – difficult for the body intervention. In addition, the procedure is very costly. Since the predominant number of patients not able to pay for treatment, help in this question often comes state. But so as to provide all patients the necessary services cannot, set a certain quota for a stem cell transplant. With the introduction of the quota system, the needy patients get the chance absolutely for free treatment in the best clinics, but, in fact, it is the main obstacle for patients due to the formed huge queues. Besides the search for a donor takes a little while, but for patients with this diagnosis every week.

Donor

Learn, how is a bone marrow transplant, you will learn following the procedure of donation of the biological material. Manipulation can be done in two ways. Choose his doctors, depending on the medical indication for a particular donor.

The First option – to extract the necessary amount of tissue from the pelvic bones. For the manipulation in advance take the analysis, the results of which will show whether the person to move the anesthesia. Hospitalization of the donor is obligatory for a few days before the procedure. The fence needed cells is carried out under anesthesia with a syringe, which is injected into the high concentration area of the desired biomaterial. As a rule, make multiple punctures to obtain the necessary volume of fluid to bone marrow transplantation. What is the procedure? Virtually painless and fast – the manipulation requires no more than an hour, but for full recovery of the body of the donor will take almost a month.

bone marrow transplant as occurs

The Second way is to venous blood, from which stem cells are extracted. During the week prior to the scheduled date of manipulation of the donor should accept ‘Leukostim” – specific drug that provokes the release of active stem cells in the blood. The donor's blood is taken, separated from it the necessary elements and return it back through the second arm. This method of sampling of biological material takes several hours, but recovery will take no more than two weeks.

How is the operation

In leukemia bone marrow transplant must be preceded by a course of chemo - or radiotherapy – the so-called the preparation mode. It lasts as long as required in each individual case. The duration of the courses is determined by the physician.

Before you do a bone marrow transplant, doctors must ensure that the recipient is ready to hold such kind of intervention. A couple of days before surgery...


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Alin Trodden - author of the article, editor
"Hi, I'm Alin Trodden. I write texts, read books, and look for impressions. And I'm not bad at telling you about it. I am always happy to participate in interesting projects."

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