The Church of Peter and Paul on Gorodenka – The oldest in Smolensk. She's small and exposed. In this “Nude” the form immediately attracts the eye. This is how the Church looked originally. In its original form has survived to the twenty-first century.
The Church of Peter and Paul on Gorodenka (Smolensk) has disputed the date of the build. Traditional – 1146 But the scientists say that this date is incorrect, because information about many temples incorrect. And in 1964 it was proposed that the date of the appearance of the temple 1170-ies.
Information about the first 4 centuries of the work of the temple in Chronicles are almost there. The Church was built in the princely hunting reserve. This is evidenced by the type of the temple – “estate”. Under the Church were the Prince's arkosolii prepared for burial.
Known period in the history of the temple began only in 1611 during the Polish intervention. The poles, capturing Smolensk, created in him the episcopate, the seat for which he was chosen the Church of Peter and Paul. Over time, from the West it was attached to an additional chamber. And the Church became the Church. After the expulsion of the poles unitary the episcopate was eliminated. And next to the Church appeared natrova bell tower.
Over time, the temple was rebuilt, raised flooring, and nearby new – Barbara. In 1812 the Church of Peter and Paul on Gorodenka was badly damaged in the fire, even the bells were melted.
Only through the priest Zubovsky partially managed to save the property. After the restoration of all that he took, returned to the temple. Repair and restoration of the building lasted until 1837, the Ancient head was replaced with a new one, but the base of the drum remains the same. After the revolution the Church was used as a Museum, but at the same time it was service. Only they were carried out in the temple of the barbarians, with whom she was connected.
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In 1924, the newly begun restoration of the building. But in 1936 the Church was closed, and the servants arrested. The building has again been used for improper purposes. In the Church is archive. In the early 60-ies the restoration of the Church took a well known architect Pyotr Baranovsky. He separated the temple from Barbara and returned the former appearance, which was in the twelfth century. And now Smolensk boasts the Church of Peter and Paul that looks like 900 years ago.
Church of Peter and Paul has simple proportions. The Church has a domed cross cheerycherry temple. The walls are made of bricks, some – straight-sided, blind arcades and the stonework of the half-columns. At the ends a lot of the embossed characters. In the construction as a binder material was used plastic clay. To facilitate the laying of applied ceramic large kolesniki. The floor originally was also made of bricks. It was later replaced with colored majolica tiles. But over the centuries it has not been preserved. Only separate fragments in the princely tombs.
The Church's exterior is divided blades. Average made in the form of half columns, which angular does not have. The Windows of the temple are semicircular, broad, single-stage niches. The walls are not sealed channels. The doors-level Gables-tape with a double curb, forming a kind of cornice.
The Church of Peter and Paul on Gorodenka fragments of Romanesque architecture. They are portals with semicircular tympanum. But they are very modest and have only a rectangular rod. In the interior of the Church is powerful pillars in the form of a right cross and connected with supporting arches. The arches of cylindrical forms, and tapped the crowns in the North-West.
Due to the architectural solution made of Windows and niches in the Church of Peter and Paul one can observe an interesting lighting effect. The altar was formerly the seat to clear. Choirs with cylindrical vaults and cross strikings are found only in the Western part of the building.
The Church of Peter and Paul on Gorodenka has no narthex. On the South side of the busy isolated chapel choirs. It is separated by brick piers. On the Northern half of the Church built a staircase lit with 2 slit-like Windows. Under choirs in the southern and Northern part – 2 pairs arkosolii.
Previously the walls and Windows of the temple were painted. Today there are only fragments of the painting. But to restore the plots failed because the painting is almost completely lost. She partly existed in the early 20th century, but then almost completely disappeared.
The Church of Peter and Paul on Gorodenka (Smolensk, street Kashena, 20) currently operating. Worship was restored in the Church even from 1991 To 1993 she attended Church Alexy II, Patriarch of All Russia. And in 1996 in honor of the anniversary (85th anniversary) of the temple was held a scientific conference. From 1992 to 2000, the Church held a restoration.
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