In the cultivation of potatoes a face with some diseases of culture. Often tubers of plants affects cancer. The causative agent of this disease is a fungus belonging to the group of biotrophic bacteria. It should be noted that cancer of a potato-quarantine disease, can partially or completely destroy the crop.
For the First time cancer potato was identified in 1888. Today this disease has spread almost throughout the territory of Europe. Less often disease is common in America, New Zealand and Africa.
In our country the cancer of potatoes have been seen in many regions where grown this culture. Especially susceptible to this disease the plants are planted in home gardens. Less exposure to cancer-susceptible crops southern and Northern regions.
It is Worth noting that the disease spread in Russia during the great Patriotic war. The fungus is capable of hitting not only the potatoes. Such microorganisms may ruin the harvest of peppers, beets, eggplant, tomatoes and so on.
Cancer of potato tubers is easy to recognize, because the disease has pronounced symptoms. However, to detect signs of illness should be timely. Otherwise, the infection will spread rapidly.
With this disease, tubers are covered with growths that begin to grow from buds. Externally, these tumors resemble the florets of cauliflower. The size of the growths can range from millimeters to tens of centimeters.
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Initially growths on the tubers have a light yellow tint. Gradually, however, their color changes and becomes dark brown. The growths start to rot and decay.
In some cases the growths occur on leaves and stems just above ground level. The roots of the disease are not affected, since the fungus attacks young tissues of plants. If the conditions are unfavorable for the pathogen, can form leaf-like growths resembling pine cones, and solid crust, very similar to a scab.
If the disease has a corrugated shape, the tubers after infection become wrinkled. On their surface can form nodules, waves and depressions.
Potato cancer – a disease that spreads rapidly. In order to timely detect the disease, you must know how is the infection of healthy plants. The spread of fungus caused by the following factors:
Cancer potatoes often occurs in cases when the culture has for many years grown in the same place. The fungus that attacks the roots, can be brought to the site together with rainfall and meltwater. Of particular importance is the manure. If the cattle had been fed contaminated raw potato tubers, the pathogen can get into fertilizer. On a separate piece of the mushroom can be added with planting material.
How Easy is it to beat cancer potato? The fungus that causes this disease, is an intracellular organism. The pathogen has a high resistance to external factors. It should be noted that the focus of infection can persist in the soil for 30 years.
During a drought, a pathogen of potato tubers is not able to develop. In the absence of sufficient moisture zoospores just die. When the period of the rains, the soil contamination is faster. It is because of this resistance, cancer is a dangerous disease for many crops.
The causative agent of potato cancer spreads very quickly. However, the disease crops do not pose a human danger. Officially your vegetables are not recognized as harmful products. They are allowed to sell, even despite the fact that such a product is very rapidly losing its appearance and spoils.
Though cancer potatoes for a man not dangerous, experts do not recommend eating contaminated vegetables. In many European countries there are strict limits and measures to eradicate and contain the disease. If the fungus struck at least one plant, the site is considered to be infected. To plant crops on it. In this case, begins to act plant quarantine. The contaminated area is fenced to a safe distance. This allows you to prevent the spread of the pathogen.
In Addition to the plant quarantine in this disease using various methods of struggle. However, any disease is easier to prevent than to treat. With the aim of prevention is to carry out the following activities:
It is also important to know when to plant potatoes. To planting is recommended in early spring in Sunny and clear weather. Every year a place to grow potatoes, you need to change. The rules of crop rotation must be observed necessarily. Alternate culture with cabbage, grain cereals and corn. This is the major event in agricultural practices that reduce the risk of cancer of the plant.
Measures to combat cancer of the potato are quite different. Most importantly, do not be planted in areas with affected soil bulbous plants. This will only aggravate the situation and accelerate the process of dissemination of the fungus. Household and industrial areas usually located at a distance of one kilometer from the fields of seed potato crops.
To reduce the risk of infection of planting material, tubers should be treated with a solution of boric acid. The application of fertilizer when planting in spring is also important. Are usually recommended to use a mineral mix that decontaminate soil and increase the harvest. Also suitable additives of organic origin. The right combination of fertilizer will reduce the risk of plant infection and improve germination of tubers.
The causative agent of potato cancer spreads very quickly. Especially if this has created favorable conditions. Therefore, the infected areas are quarantined. Vegetable planting should be inspected regularly. If you notice signs of disease affected plants is removed along with the tops. It is recommended to dig into the soil to a depth of one meter, and sprinkle with chloride of lime. As for the remaining plants, they should not be eaten. The harvest from these areas is recommended to use only for technical purposes. In the presence of the quarantine certificate, the vegetables can be harvested and exported.
The affected area is necessary to strictly observe rules of quarantine. It is forbidden to export the affected vegetables and use them as planting material. It is impossible to fertilize plots to use manure from animals that were fed contaminated products.
If there were signs of the source of contamination of plants with cancer, you should immediately go to the nearest farm or in the office. The use of chemical compounds alone in cancer of the potato experts do not recommend as it is very important when working with them to observe. It is better to seek help to those who are working to protect crops from various diseases. To grow potatoes on the affected area is not recommended within 7 years.
Planting and growing of potato varieties that have resistance to the pathogen, allows you to pause the spread of the fungus. In addition, these plants help in about 5-6 years to completely clear the fungus from the soil. On infected areas can grow varieties of potato with different levels of resistance to disease. Experts recommend to change grades approximately every 5 years.
Among the domestic varieties most resistant to the pathogen are:
Alin Trodden - author of the article, editor
"Hi, I'm Alin Trodden. I write texts, read books, and look for impressions. And I'm not bad at telling you about it. I am always happy to participate in interesting projects."
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