"Fathers and sons" is one of the most famous and popular of Turgenev's novels. It is generally relatively late, began to publish their novels - only since 1856. By the time he was already many years. Behind was the experience in "Notes of a hunter" and popularity as the author of the essays.
Ivan Sergeyevich only wrote six novels. The fourth was "Fathers and children", the year of establishment which occurred in 1861 th. This piece is the quintessential Turgenev novel of manners. He always tries to portray the events of personal life, relationships between people on the background of any social phenomena.
The Writer has always stressed that he is a pure artist and more important to him than aesthetic perfection of the book, not its political or social relevance. But in each work of Ivan Sergeevich shows that it always gets to the heart of current public debate of a particular time. About the same evidence and the novel "Fathers and children".
This work was published in 1862, in the period of rapprochement between Russia and Europe, when the great reform - the abolition of serfdom. Began to appear very different philosophical and social views.
It is Important to emphasize that Ivan Sergeyevich, the novel depicts events of the pre-reform pores 1859. And it not only opens, but calls to his work, it is a social phenomenon that has not been recognized as important and relevant.
The Concept of "nihilism"! This word entered the lexicon of the Russian people after was published the novel Turgenev's "Fathers and sons". Although in itself it existed before.
And the censors, and the readers perceived the work in very different ways. Particularly sharp debate on the then popular magazines Sovremennik and Russkoe Slovo. Unfortunately, no one creation is not without critics - a story of creation. "Fathers and sons" is a novel that was perceived not as a creation of "pure" artist.
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In may of 1862, just a few months after the publication of the works of Ivan Sergeevich, in St. Petersburg, was a disaster. There were several arson, killed people, destroyed shops.
This event was reminiscent of attacks today. It is unclear who is trying to assert its political will, not even opens their personality. While suffering and dying of innocent people. Turgenev and many posed a direct accusation that his nihilists harness Petersburg. There were those who said that the novel "Fathers and children" is actually not an artwork. This is the instruction for the Commission of terrorist acts and crimes.
Now, not only critics were against the author, but the readers expressed their negative opinions. Here such passions and debates were in full swing around the works of Ivan Sergeevich.
But not only this is the story of the creation. "Fathers and sons" - a novel that did not contain unequivocal the author's relationship to his characters. And this wicked position most of the readers were not satisfied. It is so quite difficult to figure out what I wanted to say Ivan Sergeyevich his work.
In his creation Turgenev gives a very wide panorama of Russian life. And does it that just about all events can be read from two points of view. First – the party of the fathers, which can be matched with the natural essence of the phenomena. As the seasons follow each other, so in human life there are any events that you cannot resist.
On the other hand, has a different point of view. This is a completely different measure of time, not in a circle, and building moments of life in clear line. This position belongs to a young generation, which is not so submits to the essence of things, how much it hopes to change lives.
And in the novel "Fathers and children" heroes not only opposed to each other, but are brought together. They are very closely connected. Often the point of view of the fathers shines through the views of the young nihilists.
The novel Turgenev's "Fathers and sons" represents love in several variants and dimensions. This relationship Fenichka and Nikolai Petrovich, Arkady and Catherine, as well as failed love and Bazarov Madame Odintsov.
In all these cases the duality that is present throughout the work. Through any harsh judgments, denying any hard feelings, however, emerges life, with its romance and lyricism.
The Creation of the novel "Fathers and children", its plotline, the characterization of characters, of course, are of great importance for the description of works. But the epilogue is the strong point of the text. Here is embodied the philosophy of the author.
Many believe that the story ends with the death of Bazarov. But this is not so. The final scene – rural cemetery. Ivan Sergeyevich completes its wonderfulthe creation of two hidden quotations from Pushkin's Elegy "I Wander amid the bustling…" and hymns.
The Key phrase is the comparison of human life with the indifferent world of nature. Nevertheless, it is not indifferent. Just so omnipotent that helps people to overcome the vanity of the world and to understand life is eternal and infinite.
The conflict between fathers and children which stated in the first pages of the novel, not continue increasing and deepening. On the contrary, the extremes are getting closer to each other. In the end, the reader understands that every family relationship of parents to their children is warm enough, and those in response to reciprocate. And despite all the previous negative discussions, which carries the history of creation, "Fathers and sons" with the development of the plot demonstrate that the contradictions between the views of the older generation and the young are increasingly smoothed. And at the end of the novel virtually reduced to nothing.
A particularly complex evolution experiencing itself is the protagonist - Bazarov. And it is not by coercion but as a result of internal movements of the soul and mind. He denies all the core values of noble society: nature, art, family, love. And Ivan Sergeevich understands that his character, in principle, completely hopeless and can not long live in this denial.
And once the main character falls in love, its coherent system of beliefs collapses. He had no reason to live. Therefore, it is unlikely his death in this work can be considered random.
The Meaning of the novel Ivan Sergeyevich would very briefly describe the quotation of Pushkin: "blessed is he who in his youth was young..." the fact that the contradictions between a young vigor, activity and resignation to life that are inherent in more Mature periods the person – perceived conflicts.
How nature recycles and absorbs in itself a social phenomenon, so change the views of young people in the novel "Fathers and children". The novel's characters, their characters gradually are transformed and converge with the opinions and judgments of the fathers. This is an outstanding achievement Turgenev.
The nihilist, the man who despises art, Ivan Sergeevich able to tell by means of this same skill. Very sharp social events, the author was told not in the language of replicas of party events, and art. That is why the novel "Fathers and children" are still concerned about the feelings of many readers.
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