Pituitary adenoma. Symptoms, classification


2018-10-29 05:00:28




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Pituitary Adenoma is a tumor of benign nature. The tumor originates from cells in the anterior pituitary lobe. The tumor is localized in the region of Turkish saddle in the skull base (sphenoid part of it). Typically, a pituitary adenoma diagnosed in patients aged 20 to 40 years. To a greater extent the development of tumor-prone women. According to statistics, from 22 to 30% of all intracranial neoplasms is a tumor of the pituitary gland. Symptoms of pathology appear depending on the classification.

Benign formation can be hormonally active and hormonally inactive.

The first category includes tumors that are capable of producing tropic hormones. On the formation of hormonally active adenomas indicates an increased content in the blood serum of these hormones (tropic) and the presence of clinical syndrome, is quite pronounced. The syndrome is a consequence of increased production of one or the other hormone. For hormonally active tumors include prolactinomas (prolactin producing), corticotropinomas (producing corticotropin, growth hormones (secreting growth hormone-growth hormone) and others. It should be noted that almost half of hormonally active adenomas are prolactinomas.

A small part be hormonally inactive tumors.

When the diameter of the formation is less than 10 mm is microadenoma the pituitary gland.

The reasons for the development of tumors studied to date are insufficient.

According to one of the concepts, there is a primary lesion in the hypothalamus with secondary involvement of the tumor tissue in the process. According to another concept, there is a primary lesion, which is formed by a pituitary adenoma.


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The Symptoms of hormonally active tumors include endocrine-metabolic syndrome, x-ray and ophthalmoplegias manifestations.

The Severity of the manifestations of endocrine-metabolic nature is a reflection of the excessive concentration of hormone produced and the extent of damage in the tissue that surrounds the tumor.

Ophthalmoplegias symptoms indicating a pituitary adenoma depends on its suprasellar growth. The pressure of tumors on the diaphragm of the Turkish saddle causes headaches dull in nature. Usually, pain is not accompanied by nausea, does not depend on the torso and not always eliminated with the aid of painkillers.

Damage to hypothalamic structures provokes an expanding pituitary adenoma. Symptoms when tumors spread downwards can manifest over from the nasal cavity to the cerebrospinal fluid and the feeling of nasal congestion. The growth of tumors, provoking the compression of the branches of cranial nerves, accompanied by ophthalmoplegia (lesion of the eye muscles) and diplopia (double vision).

A Complication of severe, but not considered fatal hemorrhage in the tumor. It is established that the pituitary adenoma, the symptoms of which are bleeding increase, can provoke spontaneous “cure”. As a rule, this phenomenon is more characteristic of the prolactin.

During pregnancy, usually increases pituitary adenoma.

The Symptoms are detected when carrying out x-ray examination, expressed in a variation of sizes and shapes Turkish saddle, destruction and thinning of bone structures, etc. During CT can be visualized myself pituitary adenoma.

The Symptoms of certain hormone-active tumors have specific. In some cases, of prolactinomas in women may lead to galactorrhea (secretion of molokopodobnye content of the mammary gland) or menstrual irregularities. Often found combined manifestation of these symptoms.

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