The drug "Chloramphenicol": instructions for use, method of production

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2019-01-18 02:00:49

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“.” — antibacterial medication that is used to treat infectious diseases. Has a broad spectrum of action, the drug is widely used in Pediatrics and ophthalmology.

Pharmacological action

The Main component of "Chloramphenicol" promptly acts on gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, and effectively affect the following harmful bacteria:

  • Meningococcal infection (an acute infectious disease of purulent meningitis, meningoencephalitis and meningococcemia with the defeat of various organs and systems);
  • Dysentery (an infectious disease characterized by a syndrome common infectious intoxication);
  • Typhoid fever.
chloramphenicol usage instructions

The Drug productively combats diseases caused by Haemophilus bacteria. The drug is useless against the following bacteria:

  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa;
  • Acid-fast organisms;
  • Clostridia;
  • Elementary.

For external use of the drug drug concentration is focused in the iris, cornea, vitreous body, while “.” misses the lens. Chloramphenicol has the highest activity against several groups of bacteria:

  1. Gram-positive bacteria-staphylococci (complex pathological process manifests itself by the absence of any symptoms in the initial stages and severe intoxication, and development of purulent-inflammatory lesions), Streptococcus (the cause of the infection that causes scarlet fever, sore throat, abscesses, otitis, arthritis, pneumonia, sepsis).
  2. Gram-negative bacteria — Neisseria (cause of gonorrhoea), E. coli, Salmonella, Shigella (causes dysentery), Klebsiella (causes an acute intestinal pathologies), Yersinia, Proteus (diseases of the stomach and intestines, defeat urinary tract infections, intestinal dysbiosis).

The Active substance is instantly absorbed like when taken orally, and rectal administration. The maximum concentration of the active component in the blood occurs a few hours later. Once in the blood, organs and tissues, the drug also penetrates into breast milk.

After absorption into the blood, chloramphenicol is evenly distributed throughout the body, the time of elimination of the drug from the body is from a half to three and a half hours.

chloramphenicol eye drops instructions for use

Release Form

Released in the form of tablets, powder, eye drops. In the instructions for use of "Chloramphenicol" for children says that the drug in tablets containing 0.5 and 0.25 grams of active trace element. Additional components are:

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  • Octadecanoic acid;
  • Calcium stearate;
  • Starch.

“.” in the form of powder contains 500 and 1000 milligrams of the active ingredient. Necessary for the preparation of the injection.

In one milliliter of eye drops stored 2.5 grams of chloramphenicol. The drug is released in dropper-bottles of five and ten milliliters.

Structure

Active substance within the composition of "Chloramphenicol" (instruction for use for children and adults below) is chloramphenicol. Among the excipients boric acid and water for injection.

chloramphenicol instructions for use eye drops

Readings

According to the instructions for use, "Chloramphenicol" is used in the presence of the following diseases:

  1. Yersiniose (acute intestinal disease, which is accompanied by allergic manifestations).
  2. Salmonellosis (intestinal infectious disease caused by pathogens of the genus Salmonella).
  3. Paratyphoid (an acute infectious disease that flows like typhoid typhus).
  4. Tularemia (involvement of lymph nodes and skin, and in some cases the mucous membranes of the throat, eyes and lungs, in addition, allocated and symptoms of intoxication).
  5. Ricketsiosis (diseases transmissible etiology, the causative agent of which are Rickettsia).
  6. Brucellosis (a zoonotic infection, transmitted from infected animals to humans, characterized by multiple lesions of organs and systems of the human body).
  7. Typhoid fever (acute cyclically flowing antropologia intestinal infection caused by bacteria Salmonella).
  8. Meningitis (infectious inflammatory disease of the membranes of the spinal cord or brain).
  9. Chlamydiosis (infectious disease, sexually transmitted diseases caused by chlamydia).

"Chloramphenicol" is used with low efficiency of other chemotherapeutic agents. In ophthalmology, a drug used for the treatment and prevention of infectious eye diseases:

  1. Blepharitis (inflammation of the upper and lower parts of the eyelids).
  2. Conjunctivitis (inflammation of the mucous membrane of the eyes caused by an allergic reaction or infection).
  3. Keratitis (inflammation of the cornea, manifested mainly by its cloudiness, ulceration, pain, and redness of the eyes).
  4. Dacryocystitis (inflammation of the lacrimal SAC, which develops on the background of the closure and imperforate abdominal organ or an abnormal narrowing of the nasolacrimal holeschannel).
  5. Keratoconjunctivitis (disease of an inflammatory nature, affecting the cornea and conjunctiva).
  6. Barley (acute purulent inflammation of the hair follicle eyelashes or sebaceous glands of Zeiss, which is located near the follicles of the eyelashes).
  7. Neuroparalitical keratitis, bacterial infection (indolent inflammation of the cornea that develops in lesions of the trigeminal nerve).
chloramphenicol eye usage instructions

Usage instructions

Tablets “.” if you have diarrhea, you must drink thirty minutes before a meal. As a rule, the treatment prescribed by the doctor the following dosages:

  1. Adults should take one to two (0.25 grams) tablet three to four times per day, the maximum dose of no more than two grams a day. In severe diseases of the dose may be increased to four grams, closely tracking the work of the kidneys and liver.
  2. The children of single dosing "Chloramphenicol" of the tablets is calculated from the weight of the child — kids up to three years need to be taken 10-15 milligrams per one kilogram of body weight, children from three to eight years should be from 0.15 to 2 grams of the drug. Dosing medication for teenagers - from 0.2 to 0.3 milligrams per kilogram of body weight. Single dose "Chloramphenicol" may only be taken by children aged three to four times per day depending on the disease.
  3. The duration of the course is not more than ten days. In exceptional situations, with good tolerability of the medication the duration of treatment — two weeks.

The Solution prepared from powder "Chloramphenicol" is used for intravenous and intramuscular injection. Children shall only intramuscular injection. Typically, the contents of the vial are dissolved in two or three milliliters of water. Diabetes for inkjet intravenous injection powder is dissolved in 10 milliliters of water. The procedure is carried out at certain time intervals. The duration of treatment and dosage appointed by the doctor.

Adults often prescribe injections two or three times a day in a dosage of 500 to 1000 milligrams “Chloramphenicol" in severe disease the dose increase twice, but not more than 4,000 milligrams.

drops chloramphenicol usage instructions for children

Eye drops “.”

Instructions for use indicates that the ophthalmic drug is used, digging in lower eyelid a few drops of a five per cent solution "Chloramphenicol” from three to five times a day. Duration of therapy is from five to fifteen days. The drops are an antibiotic local action, are used with infectious or bacterial diseases of the eye.

To Apply the medicine not in the presence of eczema, psoriasis, ulcers on the skin, pustular rash, renal failure. And not allowed to drip drops to the children up to four months, breastfeeding, pregnancy, people who undergo chemotherapy.

According to the reviews, "Chloramphenicol" may cause a temporary loss of sharpness of vision. In this case, it is not recommended to carry out the work requiring greater attention.

Important! Do not use the drug after the expiry date.

chloramphenicol usage instructions for children

How to apply eye drops?

“.” should only be used after doctor appointments. As a rule, inflammation of the eye instill one to three drops every hour, then every three to four hours.

For the prevention of drug use, two or three times a day.

If the patient himself dripping the medicine (without the presence of the doctor), the therapy is allowed only three days.

For patients who wear contact lenses prior to instillation to remove them. Wear lenses can be thirty minutes after the procedure. A doctor's consultation.

Features

According to the instructions for use "Chloramphenicol" for the eyes, when backfilling, you must follow a few rules:

  1. Check the expiration date.
  2. It is Good to wash your hands.
  3. Heat in the palms of the bottle of medicine.
  4. Shake the bottle. If you have a pipette or eyedropper, you can pull the lower lid, tilt your head and push up on the bubble.
  5. After getting the solution you must hold your finger to the inner corner of the eye, so that the liquid does not leak.
  6. If after "Chloramphenicol" arose a sharp pain, a burning sensation, which persists for two minutes, then you need to flush eyes with water and consult an ophthalmologist.

Complications in children

In the instructions for use to the eye drops "Chloramphenicol" says that the drug can be used with four months of life, but a doctor can prescribe medication at an earlier age, if it is not possible to remove the infection in other ways. In this case, is a minimum dosage, increasing the dose may lead to impaired production of proteins in the body of the child. Therapy occurs under the supervision of a doctor.

It is Important to monitor the General condition of the child after the input drops. Excessive sensitivity of the child's body can cause “greysyndrome”. This condition is characterized by irregular breathing, lowering of body temperature and the appearance of grey skin. After going on General poisoning, provoking a malfunction of the cardiovascular system.

Kids can experience the following complications:

  • Vomiting
  • Nausea;
  • Diarrhea;
  • A decrease in hemoglobin.
chloramphenicol eye drops instructions for use

Side effects

Like most other drugs, "Chloramphenicol" has a number of adverse reactions:

  1. Thrombocytopenia (a condition characterized by a decrease in the number of platelets, which is accompanied by increased bleeding of wounds and problems with hemorrhage).
  2. Leukopenia (a pathological condition associated with impaired hematopoiesis).
  3. Reticulocytopenia (decrease in number or absence of reticulocytes (reticulocytopenia) observed in the anemias caused by deficiency of iron content, vitamin B12, folic acid).
  4. Allergic reactions.
  5. Degenerative process that involves the separation of water in the early erythrocyte forms.
  6. Reduction of hemoglobin level of blood.
  7. Nausea.
  8. Periodic vomiting.
  9. Flatulence.
  10. Optic Neuritis.
  11. Peripheral nerve inflammatory nature.
  12. Headache.
  13. Insomnia.

Adverse reactions is the basis for dose adjustment.

As a rule, these side effects are reversible, and after discontinuation of the medication. In addition, according to the instructions and feedback, "Chloramphenicol" may cause the following negative reactions to the active substance:

  • Paracrine consciousness;
  • Hearing and vision clarity;
  • Disorders of motility;
  • Peduncular hallucinosis (visual and auditory hallucinations);
  • Vomiting;
  • Nausea;
  • Diarrhea.

The Use of the drops in infants can cause cardiovascular collapse (severe complication ending usually fatal).

Storage

The shelf Life of the tablets “.” is three years, powder for preparation of solution — four years, eye drops — two years and open vial can be stored not more than one month.

Interactions with other drugs

According to the instructions for use, "Chloramphenicol" drop with other drugs may increase the side effects. Therefore, a drop can not be combined with cytostatic drugs. In the interaction "Chloramphenicol" with antibiotics, which contain clindamycin and lincomycin, the action of both remedies will be weak. In addition, chloramphenicol reduces the therapeutic effects of penicillin antibiotics

Reviews

The use of "Chloramphenicol" infectious ocular diseases are found only positive feedback. Eye drops for praising effective and low price. Many parents tell of the easy and simple to use. But some mothers complain that "Chloramphenicol" stings the eyes baby. In addition, in rare cases, occurs in children allergic to the drops.


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JA: https://tostpost.com/ja/health/14068-chloramphenicol.html

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UK: https://tostpost.com/uk/zdorov-ya/25437-preparat-levom-cetin-nstrukc-ya-po-zastosuvannyu-formi-vipusku.html






Alin Trodden - author of the article, editor
"Hi, I'm Alin Trodden. I write texts, read books, and look for impressions. And I'm not bad at telling you about it. I am always happy to participate in interesting projects."

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