The Development of the bee, the drone and the uterus is divided into embryonic and post-embryonic and consists of several stages: egg, larva, predlogali, doll. The embryonic period starts from the moment of fertilization and is the process of formation of the egg complex multicellular creatures - larva. Post-embryonic stage is the process of transformation of a larva into an adult. By the way, bee larvae, young bees in any apiary are referred to as “Detva”.
The Larva of a bee has a simple structure: a small head and a white worm-like body, consisting of the abdominal and thoracic segments. Outer shell covered with a thin chitinous layer. Among the internal organs (the same as in the adult, only less developed) plays an important role intestine, the front wall of which is provided in the form of a short tube with muscles. Their reduction allows the larva of a bee sucking liquid food. Along the middle of the gut, which occupies a good part of the body, stretch the excretory organs - 4 malpighian vessel. Hind gut inherent curved shape with anus at the end. Miss food residues as middle and posterior intestine are not reported. The combination of these divisions occurs at the end of this stage. Heart larva is located in the dorsal region and consists of 12 cameras, while the adult insect 5. The respiratory organs are common around the torso tracheal trunks with multiple branches. Well developed fat layer, amounting to from the total body weight of about 60-65%. Genitals and nervous system are in their infancy; eyes and olfactory organs are absent. On the lower lip located opening of the spinning gland. They produced a substance in which the larva spins a cocoon.
Between the intestine and dorsal vessel are placed the ovaries. The larvae of the working bees and Royal jelly have a similar number of egg tubes. During prednachalnuyu and puppet stage larval organs and tissues disintegrate. Also degenerate egg rolls, which in adults is about 5 pieces. Uterine larvae, the formation of the ovaries continues at the puppet stage. The formation of numerous egg tubules from larvae is biologically important: in case of death of uterine larvae of bees are able to withdraw instead of ‘fistula" of the uterus. This natural phenomenon became the basis of artificial breeding of Queens.
As soon As the larva emerged from the egg, she immediately falls to the bottom of the cell and into the caring arms adult individuals, immediately beginners hard to overfeed "her child". Bees are the nurse lay on the bottom of the cell a large number of Royal jelly (5 times the weight of the larvae) produced in the pharyngeal glands and is characterized by high nutritional properties. Milk larvae of bees contains fats, carbohydrates, proteins, minerals, vitamin b, Larva, performing a rotational constant that compresses and decompresses motions with his body, constantly eats prepared supplies and growing right before our eyes.
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If “baby” individual weight of 0.1 mg has a length of 1.6 mm, then the day she manages to grow by another 1 mm. two days later, her height is already 6 mm. in Relation to the mass: after 5 days from the moment of the birth rate exceeds the initial in the 1400-1500 time. Such uncontrolled weight gain has a positive side: in the body of the larvae is the accumulation of a huge number of nutrients that are reserve in a period when food is unavailable. Starting from the third day the diet becomes more diverse and enriched with a mixture of pollen and honey. In addition to providing the younger generation with food, bees visit the nurse continuously every minute of the growing larvae. Account the total number of visits over the entire period of the larval stage is estimated in thousands.
Sometimes it happens that bees emit larvae. This circumstance is due to a disease (saccular brood, European foulbrood, and other ascospores), struck a bee colony, or the aim regulation of the quantitative indicators. Assuming that the food is not enough at all, the bees get rid of extra mouths to feed. The release of larvae could also happen because of starvation.
The Rapid growth of the larvae does not affect the size of its foreign garments – shell, which is only a few stretches. As soon as the latter becomes small, the larva of a bee, the name of which among the beekeepers sounds like “Detva”, then it changes to a larger, more appropriate size, leaving discarded clothes in the cell. In the process of growth and development of larvae occurs 4 molts, each of which lasts about half an hour. By the sixth day the larva bees are so increased that the cell is completely. With the larva, and its body no drastic changes occur. The first time the insect molts after 12-18 hours afterbirth. The second change of the shell occurs in 36 hours. The third time the robe is refreshed after 60 hours of hatching, and the last – after hours 78-89.
Then the larvae of bees comes into prednachalnuyu stage. The bee seals it-stretched out along the length of the cell and located to face the opening-breathable porous cap consisting of 2% water, 46% light brown mass with pollen in the composition and 58% of wax. Sealed insect immediately released from accumulated food debris by squeezing the walls of the stomach and break his back. A particular feature of getting rid of the excreta after feeding helps to maintain the hive in the required purity, as well as protection resulting food from contamination.
As only the larvae of bees in the combs freed from undigested food remnants, they immediately begin to spin a cocoon, that is to braid the secret of the spinning glands of the internal cavity of the cell. The larva working bees in the process such important work does not eat; uterine specimen is suspended for the meal and creates a cocoon with a hole directed to the bottom of the cell. From there the larva bees are fed Royal jelly in the process. The cocoon of the larvae of the working holes has not. In the larval stage in the future bee is 6 days, drone – 7 days, uterus – 5 days.
Another moult the larva of the honey bee is going through, being in a cocoon. However, now this process is similar to the previous one: from the surface of the body is the selection of a special liquid which promotes the separation of the old and new cuticle formed. During the last molt are nominated out of all the rudiments of the appendages, who was previously on the inner side of the shell body, and their gradual formation in the external parts of the body. In this way the individual bee is preparing for the transformation into a chrysalis. Doukaina stage from bee larvae and Royal jelly runs 2 days, drone – 2 times longer.
Beginning in docucolour phase changes gradually transform the formless into the adult insect: forming the abdomen, the chest part and the head, which is drawn antenna, mouthparts, and simple and compound eyes. The breast part is the formation of the rudiments of legs and two pairs of wings. On the abdomen to increase spinal ring – tergites. The ventral semi-ring – the sternites cover the lower part of the abdomen and connected to each other and with tergites thin film. Fatty body is abruptly reduced, because with the end of the food it serves only as a source of energy for the transformation of larval organs.
The Nutrient reserves accumulated in the body for an intense period of feeding, gradually issued in future bodies. Along the way, there is a change in body color from light yellow through purple to black or brown. The dyeing process starts with eyes, goes to the head, the chest part and the abdomen.
The Final stage of development of the larva is pupa is similar in appearance to the adult insect, only having a white color. Being in a state of complete rest, without food, the emerging insect is undergoing a sea change: some bodies disappear completely, others partially. Once this process is completed the pupa will turn into a working uterus, or the drone bee, the upper jaws it will rip the cover, and out of the cell.
Young uterus to help out the worker bees; they nibble the top of the cocoon, so that he becomes gray-white. It is for this color, you can determine from which cells will hatch a new Queen. General cycle of development from egg to adult insect lasts 21 days the working bees, 16 days at the uterus and 24 days from the drone. For qualitative development of all representatives of the colony in the nest should be a constant temperature of 34 to 35 O, as well as sufficient supplies of food and number of bees.
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