Environmental monitoring & ndash; is a set of observations, maintained that, in what condition is the environment, as well as its evaluation and prediction of changes occurring in it under the influence of both anthropogenic and natural factors. As a rule, in any territory, such studies are always underway, but service, they are engaged in, belong to different departments, and their actions are not coordinated on any of the aspects. For this reason, the environmental monitoring is the primary task: to determine the ecological and economic area. The next step is to select information relating to the state of the environment. You also need to make sure that the data received is sufficient to draw the right conclusions.
Since the surveillance is being solved a lot of problems at various levels, at the time it was proposed to distinguish three areas:
- natural and economic;
However, in practice it turned out that this approach does not allow to clearly define the zoning and institutional settings. It is impossible to divide and function of subtypes of monitoring the environment.
Environmental monitoring subsystems
The Main subspecies of the studies carried out by the environment, is:
Climate monitoring. This service deals with the control and prediction of climate fluctuations. It covers the ice cover, atmosphere, ocean and other parts of the biosphere, influencing its formation.
- Geophysical monitoring. This service analyzes the data on air pollution and data of hydrologists, meteorologists.
Biological monitoring. This service monitors how pollution affects all living organisms.
- Monitoring the health of the inhabitants of a particular territory. This service observes, analyzes and predicts the health status of the population.
So, in General, the environmental monitoring are as follows. Select environment (or one object), measured its parameters, is collected and transmitted information. After this data is processed, given their General characteristics at this stage and is forecasting for the future.
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Levels of monitoring the status of the environment
Environmental monitoring – it is a system of multi-level. Ascending it looks like this:
- Detailed level. Monitoring is implemented in small areas.
- Local level. This system is formed when part of the detailed monitoring are combined in one network. That is, it is already in the district or a big city.
- at the Regional level. It covers the territory of several regions within one state or province.
national level. His form combined in one the country's system of regional monitoring.
- at the Global level. It combines the monitoring system of several Nations. His task-to monitor the environment around the world, to predict its changes, including, and as a result of the impact of anthropogenic factors on the biosphere.
Environmental monitoring is scientifically grounded and has its own program. It specifies the purpose of the meeting, concrete steps and methods of implementation. The main points that make up the environmental monitoring program, the following:
- the List of objects that are monitored. Accurate indication of their territories.
- the List of indicators for the ongoing monitoring and acceptable limits of change.
Finally, the time frame, that is, how often should samples be selected, and when the data should be provided.
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