Jean-Jacques Rousseau: the basic ideas. Jean-Jacques Rousseau: biography, quotes

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2018-03-17 13:50:27

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Jean-Jacques Rousseau refers to those philosophers, which will cause debate. It belongs to the pleiad of the thinkers of the Enlightenment or, conversely, to its most implacable critics? He prepared the ground for the French revolution or did everything that it did not happen? Many biographers broke the spear, arguing about who was Jean-Jacques Rousseau. The basic ideas of this philosopher, belonging to both schools of naturalism and sensationalism, we will consider in this article. Because this man understood that progress is a misfortune, despotism begets powerlessness of the majority. In a situation when the majority of people lived virtually below the poverty line, he cherished the idea of universal equality.

Jean Jacques Rousseau main ideas

Views of Jean-Jacques Rousseau: what lies at their basis

The Main motive of the ideas of the philosopher is the demand to withdraw the society from the state in which it is now. That is, from a situation of General depravity. His colleagues-the educators argued that it is possible, is to properly educate princes and rulers. As well as to establish a Republic, where all will receive the same material benefits and political rights. Rousseau believed that the main principle of a proper society lies in the right moral mindset. The philosopher said that “every man is virtuous” when it ‘private will in all things conforms to the General will”. Morality for him was the main measure of everything. Therefore, he believed that without virtue, no true freedom does not exist. But his life was as a refutation of his whole philosophy.

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Biography. Youth and early career

Jean-Jacques Rousseau, the basic ideas which we analyzed, was born in the city of Geneva and its religious beliefs in childhood was a Calvinist. His mother died during childbirth, and his father fled the city as it became a victim of prosecution. From an early age he was given in apprenticeship, but neither the notary nor the engraver, subordinate to whom was the philosopher, did not like him. The fact that he'd voraciously read books and not work. He was often punished, and he decided to run. He came to the next area - the Savoy, which was Catholic. There, without the involvement of Madame de Varan - his first patron, he became a Catholic. Thus began the ordeal of the young thinker. He works as a footman in an aristocratic family, but does not take root there and goes back to Madame de Varan. With her help, he goes to study in Seminary, throws her two years of wandering in France, often sleeping under the open sky, and returns to his former love. Even the presence of another admirer “mother” does not bother him. For several years Jean-Jacques Rousseau, whose biography is in his youth was so different from his later views, then away, then back to Madame de Varan and lives with her in Paris, Chambery and other places.

Jean Jacques Rousseau biography

Maturity

To Stay for a long time as a protégé of an aging ladies Rousseau eventually found it impossible. He was trying to make, but failed. He failed either to teach children or to work as a Secretary to the Ambassador. With all the employers he had problems. Misanthropy gradually penetrates the character of this man. With people he does not agree. Nature – that's what begins to fascinate such a lover of solitude, as Jean-Jacques Rousseau. The biography of a philosopher suddenly makes a sharp turn – he married a maid servant in one of the hotels. It was a coarse, vulgar woman he did not love, but she was feeding him. All of his children he gave to the shelter, later claiming that the money for the family he never had. He continued to work at various temporary positions, and now, as Secretary, entered the society of the Encyclopaedists, who were going home. One of his first friends was Denis Diderot. The latter were often persecuted for their political views. One day, when Jean-Jacques was on his way to visit Diderot in prison, he read in the newspaper contest, the announcement of the prize for the best work on the subject, useful for society, science and art. A young man wrote an essay denouncing the culture and civilization. Ironically, the first place was that he, Jean-Jacques Rousseau. The basic ideas of his philosophy were expressed in this text. Thus began his biography as a thinker.

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques philosophy

Thank you

Since then, Russo has lived brilliant ten years. He wrote the music and the operetta that was put on the Royal stage. It was fashionable in high society. And since its basic idea was the rejection of contemporary culture, he abandoned the principles of a rich and prosperous life, was to dress up simple (and even rude) and started vulgar and offensive to communicate with their fellow aristocrats. He earned on a life, rewriting notes. Although the ladies showered him with gifts, all the gifts got his greedy wife. Soon wrote another work, which became popular. The political ideas of Jean-Jacques Rousseau appeared for the first time in this work. Talking about how there was inequality, the thinker felt that all that stands in the basis of modern life – the government, laws, division of labor, - all this led to moral decline. One of the connoisseurs of Rousseau, Madame d ' Epinay, built for him in their possession a special «Hermitage» middle of the forest, where the philosopher could indulge reflection in solitude. However, after a failed affair with a young married aristocrat that led to scandal among Enyclopedia, Rousseau breaks with associates.

Jean-Jacques Rousseau's pedagogical ideas

Problem

The Philosopher finds refuge with the Duke of Luxembourg, where he lives another four years and wrote many works. One of them is likely to bring on him the wrath of the Church, and he fled from the court verdict of the Paris Parliament. Hiding in his native Switzerland, he sees that he is also not happy – the government of the Canton of Berne expelled philosopher. New shelter provides him with the Prussian king – three years Rousseau spent in the village of Môtier. But then, troublemaking nature causes him to quarrel with all the surrounding inhabitants. Trying to start a new life, he comes to Geneva and again adopted Calvinism, but also with the representatives of this confession can not live peacefully, and begins to quarrel with them. The culmination of these problems was a conflict with another ‘mastermind" of that era – Voltaire, who also lived near Geneva, in the estate of Ferney. Mocking the opponent with pamphlets survives Jean-Jacques from môtier, and Rousseau was forced to flee to England. He accepts the invitation of another philosopher, Hume. But he can't get along, and after a while a new friend declares Rousseau was crazy.

The Wanderings and death

The Philosopher returned to Paris, once again wandering, finding refuge with a friend, then the other. Voltaire began publishing pamphlets about what a terrible life I lived, a man named Rousseau, Jean-Jacques. The philosophy and actions that “hypocrite” absolutely not coincide with each other, says the opponent. In response, Rousseau wrote his famous “Confession”, trying to justify his past and present. But his mental illness progresses. His health is rapidly deteriorating, and soon, according to one version, during a concert in his honour, the philosopher dies suddenly. His grave is on the island of Willows became a place of pilgrimage for fans of the thinker, who believed that Rousseau fell victim to public stigmatization.

the Views of Jean Jacques Rousseau

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques. The philosophy of escapism

As already mentioned, the first writings of the thinker, was the competition “Reasoning” about the art, science and the origins of inequality. He later wrote such works as “the Social contract”, “Emile, or Education feelings” and “the New Eloise”. Some of his works are written in the form of essays, and some as novels. It is the latter the most famous was Jean-Jacques Rousseau. The main idea of denouncing civilization and culture, from which to escape, made them in his youth, find their natural continuation. The main man was considered a philosopher, is not the mind, and feelings. Basic instincts of a moral being should recognize the Conscience and Genius. Unlike the mind, they are not wrong, although often not consciously. The Renaissance, which all admire, has led to the present decay of society, because science, art and the industrial development that began at that time led to the alienation of people from each other and the appearance of artificial needs. The task of the philosopher – to re-make man United and therefore happy.

the Political ideas of Jean-Jacques Rousseau

Historical views

But not only the Renaissance and his achievements denounced Jean-Jacques Rousseau. The theory of the social contract is one of his major philosophical conclusions. Criticizing contemporary political ideas, it is contrary to popular at the time Hobbes. In the prehistoric era, says Rousseau, was no “war of all against all", and was a real ‘Golden age”. Fallen modern society begins with the appearance of private property – as soon as one of the...

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