Under the electric shock is meant a traumatic lesion of the integrity, functions of tissues and organs, appearing under the influence of industrial, domestic, or natural electric current. Different types of shocks have different effect on the body, this may result in burns, disorders of the physico-chemical composition of blood, lacerations, fractures, dislocations, disorders of internal bioelectric processes.Such injuries often lead to death.
The nature of the lesion are the following types of electrical shocks.
- Local damage occur in burn injuries of the skin, soft tissues, ligaments, electronically (lesions of the external membranes of the eye), metallization of the skin. Local electric shock are characterized by the appearance of electrical marks on body sharply outlined spots gray or pale yellow color appearing in places of contact with the current source.
- a Common injury accompanied by electric shock muscle groups, which is manifested in convulsions, paralysis of the heart, breathing.
Depending on the severity of all types of electrical injuries are divided into four degrees.
- I Injury severity manifested by convulsions without loss of consciousness. Also, there is blanching of the skin, General excitement, shortness of breath, headache, rise in blood pressure. After the termination of traumatic shock the victim begins to experience pain.
- II Injury severity accompanied by tonic convulsions and loss of consciousness. At the second degree of electric shock victims have a decrease in blood pressure, slight disorders in the respiratory system. Often there is cardiac arrhythmia, shock.
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- III degree of severity is characterized by severe respiratory disorders, cramps, ruptures of the blood vessels of the lungs, disorders of the heart and the entire circulation, a sharp decrease in blood pressure, heart rhythm disturbances, detachment of the retina, edema of brain, lungs. May appear necrotic foci in lungs, liver, spleen, thyroid and pancreas. The result of the injury of the third degree can become a coma.
- For grade IV characterized by respiratory arrest as the result of paralysis of the respiratory centre and ventricular fibrillation of the heart. Often occurs when electrical current passes through a man's head.
The effects of electric current are the following types of electrical injuries:
- instant, received in just a few seconds.
chronic, obtained by constant and prolonged contact with a source of strong current.
Injury from electrocution is possible when interacting with a source in the home, at the workplace or from lightning. Direct lightning strike – it is spontaneous, a force majeure factor, from which the person to be insured is not able to.In other cases, causes to be next.
- the psycho-Physiological nature. That is, the injury may be a consequence of the weakened attention, stress, excessive fatigue, state of health, of being under the influence of drugs, alcoholic beverages.
- Technical nature. Such reasons include faulty electrical equipment, which may be a voltage in the metal parts of the device; the use of electrical devices not for their intended purpose; interruptions in the supply voltage; violations of the rules of operation of the instrument.
- Organizational nature. Causes of electrical shocks of an organizational nature may be of negligence in the use of devices connected to the mains, the neglect of elementary safety regulations at work and at home.
Electric injury accounts for only 2-2,5% of all injuries and the majority of them are people whose profession is directly related to electricity i.e. electrical, electricians, high voltage constructions, builders.
Electric shock can Occur in the presence of dangerous electric voltage or current, due to the nature of the organism and state of health of the environment.
At the moment of electric shock a person can feel the jolt, the spasm, of muscles, burning blow. After the current ceases to act, the main symptoms observed by the Central nervous system. Signs of injuries from electric current have a lot in common with the clinical picture of concussion of the brain. Observed lethargy, confusion, indifference to surroundings, nausea, headache and dizziness.
The cardiovascular system responds to electric shock.
- the initial increase and subsequent sharp decrease in blood pressure;
- increased heart rate;
- expansion of borders of heart.
In the lungs may appear wet wheeze, x-ray images are detected foci of emphysema, cough. In some cases, detected by acute respiratory failure. Some victims suffer from vomiting, diarrhea, nausea.
An electrical burn occurs at the point of entry and vicodine electric current. But the lack of the current label should not be taken as a reason to avoid electric shock. Many of the victims (30%) are missing labels.
An electrical burn also has several degrees of severity.
The First degree appear to be small foci of coagulation of the epidermis without the formation of bubbles.
Second-degree Burns of gravity provide a total lesion of skin with formation of bubbles.
The Third degree is accompanied by lesions of the entire thickness of the skin and dermis. Superficial necrosis was observed.
At the fourth degree of severity affects not only the skin but also the underlying tissues, developing deep necrosis.
Superficial burns in electrical injuries are less common than deep burns. Electric shock in some cases may be accompanied by extensive damage to tissues or even charring of the limbs.
When a personal injury from lightning, observed:
- temporary blindness;
temporary muteness and deafness;
- a pathological fear;
- fear of light;
- the paralysis of the respiratory and cardiac system;
The brightness of the specific manifestations of these symptoms depends on the severity of the injury.
In order to be able to help the affected person must first to protect themselves. Should de-energize the voltage source to pull the wire out of the hands of the victim. If this is not possible, so it is necessary to isolate the victim from the power source. For this we need to use protection such as a Board, wooden stick, zaizolirovali tool, rubberized gloves, insulating stand, rubberized shoes. If such security is not around, you can protect yourself, moving to affected small “duck steps”. The feet should not get off the ground. The toes of one foot must always be in line with the heel of the other foot.
To Pull the injured man from the site of injury is necessary for a distance of 10-15 meters. At the same time to hold it is necessary for the edges of the garment without touching the bare parts of the body. First aid for electric shock should start to provide, when the victim is in a safe place. Checked breathing and pulse. If they are not palpable, you should start to do artificial respiration and chest compressions. If the consciousness of the person is not lost, he should give any sedative, to give drink as much as possible in anticipation of the arrival of the ambulance.
If the skin is clearly visible burns, they should, when you have a clean bandage or cloth bandage. If you suspect a fracture, you must splint the limb.
Subsequent aid for electric shock first degree is not always required. The man with injuries to 2nd, 3rd and 4th degrees of severity after receiving first aid should be delivered in traumatologic or surgical the point where he will be provided with qualified medical aid.
The First thing that is done is the tetanus vaccine. Then begins the topical treatment of burns and General treatment aimed at the restoration of systems, functions of the body.
As burns to place labels superimposed sterile bandage with disinfectant. Burnt skin can be subjected to ultraviolet irradiation, which facilitates the process of cell death and accelerates the process of formation and restoration of healthy epithelium.
In Parallel with the local treatment of damaged parts of the body in need of intensive infusion therapy, which restores the heart operation...
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