Vision is vital to most living organisms. It helps to focus and react to the environment. Eyes convey to the brain about 90 percent of the information. But the structure and placement of the eyes of different living beings differs.
There are the following types of view:
For monocular vision of the surrounding world is perceived, usually, with one eye. This type of view is typical mainly for birds and herbivores. This feature allows time to see and react to the impending danger.
Stereoscopic vision panoramic inferior to lesser visibility. But it has a number of advantages, one of which is a three-dimensional image.
Stereoscopic vision-ability to see the world through two eyes. In other words, the overall picture is made up of the fusion of images coming to the brain from each eye at the same time.
With the help of this type of view can be properly evaluated not only the distance to a visible object, but also its approximate size and shape.
In Addition, stereoscopic vision has another significant advantage-the ability to see through objects. So, if the sight of to put, for example, a fountain pen in an upright position and alternately watch each eye, then a certain area in the first and in the second case will be closed. But if you look with both eyes at the same time, the pen ceases to be a hindrance. But this ability “to see through objects" is void under the condition that the width of the object is greater than the distance between the eyes.
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The Peculiarity of this type of view by the various representatives of the world are presented below.
Their vision has a unique structure. The eyes of insects resemble a mosaic (e.g., eyes wasps). Moreover, the number of these mosaics (facets) of different representatives of this representative of the living world is different and ranges from 6 to 30 000. Each facet sees part of the information, but cumulatively they provide a complete picture of the surrounding world.
And colors of the insects are not seen as people. For example, the red flower that people see, eyes wasps perceive as black.
Stereoscopic vision in birds is rather the exception than the rule. The fact that most birds with eyes located on the sides, which provides a wider viewing angle.
This type of view is present mainly birds of prey. This helps them to correctly calculate the distance to moving prey.
But the visibility of birds is much smaller than, for example, people. If a person is able to see at 150°, the birds only from 10° (sparrows and bullfinches) to 60° (owls and nightjars).
But do not hurry, claiming that the feathered representatives of the living world deprived of the ability to fully see. Not at all. The thing is, they have other unique capabilities.
For Example, owls have eyes closer to the beak. However, as already noted, their viewing angle is only 60°. Therefore, owl is able to see only what is directly in front of them, not setting side and rear. These birds have another distinctive feature - their eyes fixed. But they have another unique ability. The structure of your skeleton owl is able to turn his head 270°.
As is known, the absolute majority of the species of fish eyes located on either side of the head. They are characterized by monocular vision. The exceptions are predatory fish, especially hammerhead sharks. For many centuries people were interested in the question of why this fish is such a shape of the head. Possible clue found us researchers. They put forward the theory that the hammerhead sees a three-dimensional image, i.e. it is endowed with stereoscopic vision.
To prove their theory, scientists conducted an experiment. For this purpose, the heads of several species of sharks have been placed, the sensors with which we measured the activity of the brain of fishes when exposed to bright light. Then the subjects were placed in the aquarium. As a result of this experience and it became known that hammerhead is endowed with a stereoscopic vision. Moreover, the accuracy of determining the distance to the object, the more accurate the greater the distance between the eyes of the shark.
In Addition, it became known that the fish eye is the hammer spin, which allows her to fully see their surroundings. It gives her a significant advantage over other predators.
Animals depending on the species and habitats endowed with both monocular and stereoscopic vision. For example, herbivores that live in open spaces, to preserve their lives and rapid response to impending danger need to see as much as possible the space around them. Therefore, they have monocular vision.
Stereoscopic vision in animals is typical of predators and the inhabitants of forests and jungles. First, it helps to calculate the distance to his victim. Second, such a vision allows for a better focus among the many obstacles.
For example, to the wolves like this type of view helps with long-term pursuit. Cats - with lightning-fast attack. By the way, the cats due to the parallel arrangement of visual axes, the angle is 120°. But some breeds of dogs developed and monocular and stereoscopic vision. Their eyes are on the sides. Therefore, to consider the subject at a great distance, they use the front for stereoscopic vision. To browse nearby objects dog forced to turn his head.
The Inhabitants of the treetops (primates, squirrels, etc.) stereoscopic vision helps in search of food and calculating the trajectory of a jump.
Stereoscopic vision in humans is developed since birth. At birth infants are unable to focus on a particular subject. Binocular vision are starting to be formed only on the 2nd month of life. But fully children begin to navigate properly in the space only when they begin to crawl and walk.
Despite the apparent identity that human eyes are different. One of them is leading the other – driven. For recognition, it is sufficient to conduct an experiment. Positioning the sheet with a small hole at a distance of about 30 cm and look through it at a distant object. Then do the same thing, covering the left and right eye. Head position must remain constant. The eye for which the image does not change position, leading. This definition is important for photographers, videographers, hunters and some other professions.
This type of view has emerged in humans, as several other representatives of the living world, as a result of evolution.
Of Course, modern people don't need to hunt prey. But stereoscopic vision plays a significant role in their lives. It is especially important for athletes. So, without an accurate calculation of the distance the athletes do not hit the target, and the gymnasts can't compete on the balance beam.
This type of view is very important for professions that require instant reaction (drivers, hunters, pilots).
And in everyday life without stereoscopic vision is not enough. For example, it's hard enough seeing out of one eye to put thread in a needle eye. Partial loss of vision are very dangerous to humans. Seeing only one eye he will not be able to navigate in space. And multifaceted world will turn into a flat image.
It is Obvious that stereoscopic vision is a result of evolution. And given them just the elected.
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