Asia-Pacific: market, development, cooperation

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2018-03-17 11:45:16

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Pacific is the largest market in the world, and its potential is far from exhausted. Moreover, according to forecasts by leading experts, in the future, this region's share in the global market will only expand. Let's learn in greater detail what constitutes the Asia-Pacific region. Separately the prospects and forecasts its development.

The Area

First of all find out what constitutes the Asia-Pacific region geographically. Traditionally, the countries that are included in this region are those of the state, located on the shores of the Pacific ocean, as well as Mongolia and Laos.

Asia Pacific

The Entire Asia-Pacific region can be divided into 4 districts, which correspond to parts of the world, where the States within it: North American, South American, Oceanian and Asian. In addition, the Asian district is divided into two sub-regions: North Asia and Southeast Asia.

In the North American area includes the following countries: Canada, USA, Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Pica, Panama.

To the South American area includes countries: Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Chile.

North sub-area includes the following countries: PRC (China), Mongolia, Japan, DPRK, Republic of Korea, the Republic of China (Taiwan), Russia. The Asia-Pacific region, this group is the largest territory, and in the high population.

In the sub-region of Southeast Asia include the following countries: Vietnam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Philippines, Malaysia, Laos, Brunei, Thailand. Many experts here also include Myanmar and Nepal. In addition, in some cases India also acts as a country within the Asia Pacific region, but considering that the cases of inclusion of India in this region specialists still fairly rare, and the country has no outlet to the Pacific ocean, we will not consider this as a subject of APR.

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In the Oceania region is the set of States of Oceania, most of which are quite small. Among the largest countries, both in territorial and economic terms, this area should be allocated to Australia, New Zealand and Papua-New Guinea. Smaller States: Fiji, Solomon Islands, Palau, Nauru, Federation of Micronesia, Vanuatu, Marshall Islands, Tuvalu, Kiribati, cook Islands, Tonga, Samoa. This includes many dependent territories such as GUAM, Tokelau, French Polynesia, etc.

History of the region

To better understand what constitutes the Pacific, it is necessary to delve into its history.

The Oldest state formations of this region can be considered China. He is deservedly considered one of the cradles of civilization on earth. First state formations appeared here in the III Millennium BC this makes It the oldest state is China (Asia-Pacific), as, for example, Egypt and Mesopotamia-ancient civilizations of the Middle East.

Later came the state in Southeast Asia (the largest of them - the Empire of Kambujadesa), in Japan and Korea. China has become the territory on which sequentially alternated different Empire, and a cultural and economic center of the region. Even after the formation of a great Eurasian Empire of the Mongols in the thirteenth century, who United the land of the continent from Russia to the Pacific ocean (actually, the Western part of the modern ATP), the main capital of Genghis Khan did to Khanbalik (modern Beijing), and absorbed Chinese tradition and culture.

development in the Asia Pacific region

Russia first came to the Pacific coast in the seventeenth century. Since then the interests of the state were inextricably linked with the region. Already in 1689, was signed the Treaty of Nerchinsk-the first official document between Russia and China, which indicated the delimitation of zones of influence of these countries in the region. Over the next centuries, the Russian Empire expanded its zone of influence in the far East, which can be called the modern Russian Federation the unconditional part of the Asia-Pacific region.

Public education on the West coast of the American continent, which, ironically, is the Eastern part of the Pacific came much later than in Asia. Education Peruvian “Kingdom” of Cuzco, which in the XV century there was the famous Empire of the Incas, refers to 1197 ad. The Aztec Empire in Mexico came about later.

But different parts of the vast region known as the APR, in the period of which we have spoken above, were scattered, and the inhabitants of the Western coast of the Pacific ocean knew nothing about living on the East coast and Vice versa. Into a unified whole Asia-Pacific region began to turn gradually only after the Great geographical discoveries of the XV-XVII centuries. It was then that Columbus discovered America and Magellan circumnavigated. Of course, the integration of the economy in the initial stages was rather slow, but nevertheless, already in the XVI century, the Philippines was included in the Spanish Viceroyalty of New Spain, centered in Mexico.

In 1846, after the assignment of the Kingdom of Oregon, the Pacific country has become one of the most rapidly developing States of the time – USA. After the annexation of California after two years United States wide bandwidth out to the Pacific ocean and soon became the leading power in the region, largely affecting its economy and the markets. It was after the expansion of the USA to the West coast in the nineteenth century, the Pacific region began to take on traits of economic unity.

But more or less close to the modern political and economic character of the Asia-Pacific region is acquired only after the colonial partition of the XIX century, two world wars and decolonization. During world war II the Japanese Empire, relying on an Alliance with Nazi Germany, tried using military force to ensure a dominant position in the region, but was defeated by the allied forces.

Modernity

After world war II, like the rest of the world, the Asia-Pacific countries is actually divided into two political camps: the countries of the socialist model of development and capitalist. In the first camp leaders were the Soviet Union and China (though these countries, too, were ideological conflicts), while in the second was dominated by the USA. Besides the United States, the most economically developed Pacific rim countries of the capitalist camp was Canada, Japan and Australia. After some time it became clear that, despite the many shortcomings of the capitalist (Western) model of economic development has established itself as more successful.

Even defeated after the Second world war, Japan chose the Western model of development, thanks to the help of the United States, in a relatively short period of time became one of the most economically developed countries of the region and the world as a whole. This phenomenon has been called “the Japanese economic miracle”. In the late 80-ies the economy of this country even threatened to come out on top in the world in GDP, but this did not happen because of the economic crisis.

In addition, since the 60-ies of XX century, very high economic indicators showed a “Four Asian tiger". So called the following countries: the Republic of Korea (South Korea), Singapore, Taiwan and Hong Kong. Their level of development exceeded even the level of some Western European countries. Good growth was demonstrated in Thailand and the Philippines. But the socialist countries, particularly Vietnam, Mongolia, Laos, Cambodia and the DPRK economy has grown much worse.

After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the political situation in the region changed dramatically. From a pure socialist economy refused to even such States as China, which, however, allowed in the future to become one of the leaders of the world economy. Such changes, however, are not so successful, have occurred in some other socialist countries included in the Asia-Pacific region. The policy has been sidelined in Vietnam. There, despite continuing to dominate Marxist ideology, as in China, introduced elements of a market economy. Cambodia generally abandoned the socialist doctrine.

Asia Pacific

After the collapse of the USSR Russia has lost the leading position in the region both in economic and in political terms, but since the early 2000s, showing significant economic growth, largely able to regain.

A Significant blow to the economy of the region caused the Asian financial crisis of 1997-1998 years. Most affected "Four Asian tiger". The crisis abruptly stopped their growth. A powerful blow was also inflicted on the economy of Japan. This crisis has become one of the causes of default in Russia in 1998. Many of the current problems in Asia and the Pacific have origins in these crisis events.

China's Economy has also suffered, but in comparison with the above countries, not so much, which allowed soon to resume growth at a faster pace. In 2014, China's economy came in first place in the world, surpassing the US in GDP and purchasing power parity. The leader on this indicator, China is at the present time, although it is still inferior to USA in nominal GDP. In addition, now the goods from China dominate...

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